Author ：Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier
12.56 million, many people in the automotive industry do not be angry - it is the sales of new energy vehicles in my country in 2018 (which is 984,000, accounting for 78.3%).
At the end of 2018, my country's new energy vehicle guarantee is only 2.61 million (including 2.11 million pure electric vehicles, accounting for 81.
06% of the total new energy vehicle). This growth rate is particularly highlighted in the context of the overall downturn of the car market. Many people buy "electric cars" is almost the helplessness under the limited numbering policy, but it is undeniable that the rapid development of new energy vehicles has brought emissions and economic advantages to the owners.
However, with the surge in the number of new energy vehicles, the recovery problem of the power lithium battery will form a new challenge in the absence of the future, no matter whether it is still in society, if it is unable to handle this problem, "new energy" will inevitably in the environment And economic formation. my country's new energy vehicle scale production is around 2014, while the life of the power lithium-ion battery (currently believes that when the battery is attenuated above 20%, it is no longer used) generally 5-8 years, the earliest Size power lithium-ion battery is already eliminated. It is expected that the amount of powerful lithium-ion battery of the new energy car in 2020 will reach 24GWH, which is equivalent to 800,000 electric vehicles.
Since the rise speed of new energy vehicles in recent years, after achieving this critical point, the number of retired quantities will be more and more. How to pre-prepared before this wave of hit arrival is especially important. As mentioned above, the battery used in my country's pure electric vehicles is two kinds of three-dimensional lithium-ion batteries and lithium iron phosphate, although lithium-ion batteries contain a large amount of lead, cadmium, etc.
, which contains a large number of lead, cadmium, etc., as traditional batteries. Heavy metals, but in addition to lithium ions in the electrolyte still contains heavy metals such as nickel, cobalt, manganese (such as three-dimensional lithium-ion battery as a positive electrode material), will cause heavy metal pollution without professional recovery.
The electrolyte solute LiPF6 is toxic substance and is extravasive, which will cause fluorofluid, and the solvent can cause water pollution, strong corrosion of the human body and animals and plants. During the process of dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling, the metal to be purified is to be recovered, which is not to introduce a large amount of ammonia water to solve, and this will inevitably discharge the harmful ammonia-containing liquid. Excessive ammonia waste liquid is discharged into the water, it is a tight source that causes eutrophication of the water body.
In addition, there is a problem with the recycling disposal of the waste power lithium-ion battery. From a resource perspective, different types of power lithium ion batteries are different from those of the positive electrode material, respectively, of metal, such as metal, and these metals can be reused. With the continuous increase in market demand, such resources in waste batteries can cause great waste of resources, and are not conducive to reducing battery costs.
It can be seen that the recycling of the dynamic lithium-ion battery is related to the protection of the environment, is also related to saving resources and reducing costs. The two tight directions of the current dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling is the ladder utilization and material recovery cycle utilization. The former can disassemble the battery to eliminate the new energy vehicle, in the category of emergency power storage, low-speed electric vehicles, etc.
, the latter will thoroughly analyze the battery and resource recycling. Normally, when the power lithium ion battery capacity is attenuated to 80% or less, it will not fully meet the vehicle power demand, but can be used in other categories. The most typical example of this form is my country Tower, its huge base station, energy storage layout, sufficient to undertake the size of the retired dynamic lithium-ion battery.
In 2018, my country Tower Company announced the suspension of the lead-acid battery, and the battery to eliminate the new energy vehicle is used as a backup power supply of its communication base station, and enhance business expansion in the energy storage and external power generation. In addition, companies such as BYD, Guoxuan High-class company have also developed a ladder that is suitable for backup, air-saving energy storage. However, the tradder is also facing some technical issues, such as discrete integration technology and life test technology.
Due to the difference in power lithium-ion battery specifications for different manufacturers, there is a lack of unified standards, often encounter compatibility issues when dismantling and re-combining. At the same time, when the battery capacity, voltage, internal resistance, etc., when the step is used, the cliff fall is formed under the number of cycles, which causes great difficulties in the later use maintenance.
Overall, the investment cost of the ladder is still higher than the cost of the purchase of new batteries, although the advantages of digestive retired batteries are clear, but there is no price ratio under current conditions. Dynamic lithium-ion battery dismantling regeneration is collected on the recovery of the positive electrode material, the general flow is: discharge, disassemble the battery system, disassemble the battery module, battery pack resolution and material purification. The critical direction is that the battery pack is resolved and material extraction, and the metal element in the waste dynamic lithium ion battery is purified and recovered in these two links.
It is worth noting that the mature and perfect recycling system needs to be premised on profits. If the company does not have actual profits, it will be difficult to carry out only the subsidies of the policy. Taking the current phosphate ion battery recovery as an example, there is a statistical point that the material extracted by a ton of waste batteries is 8110 yuan, but the corresponding recovery cost is as high as 8540 yuan.
Since the three-dimensional lithium ion battery is guaranteed due to more recyclable metals, the profit is guaranteed, but it is also necessary to pay a certain risk before the size effect has not yet formed. However, when the technological advancement, the dynamic lithium ion battery recovery becomes advantageous, and it is inevitable that the phenomenon of small workshop violations will be resolved. For example, many small workshop-style recycling stations use the Wang Water to dissolve the precious metals such as electronic products such as mobile phones, discard the materials and waste liquids, and have a huge harm to the environment.
Therefore, the disassembly regeneration of the dynamic lithium-ion battery will be an extremely complex system involving various technologies, policies, funds, and must work closely with the government's joint car companies, research institutions, batteries, and third-party recycling factories. In addition to optimizing the later approach, we can also prepare for the early stage. For example, when designing processing, the recycling is taken into account, so that the structure of the battery can be more concise, easy to reduce the recycling of high efficiency and low cost.
A further system of strict three yards (ie battery coding, automotive VIN code, and recycling), enrolling these countries, so that the processing and use of each battery can be traced back to ensure that the flow of the battery will be controllable. The massive recovery of the power lithium-ion battery does not have too much relevant experience that can be followed. Especially when the number is surge, the amount changes causes the change, and the previous approach is no longer applicable.
We must take this issue with a new idea and perspective. Technology, policy, subsidies, regulatory, game, and perfect dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling system must be completed through a variety of forms of multi-party cooperation, in which no party can become an absolute protagonist. .
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