Revitalization technology of waste lithium ion batteries: wet recycling technology is mainly

2022/04/08

  Author :Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier

Lithium-ion battery recovery technology profile waste lithium-ion battery resource technology is the ingredients in waste lithium-ion batteries, according to their respective physics, chemical properties, separation. In general, the entire recovery process is divided into 4 parts: (1) Pre-treatment part; (2) electrode material repair; (3) leaching of a ratio metal; (4) chemical purification. During the recovery process, according to different extraction process, the recovery technology of lithium ion batteries can be divided into three categories: (1) dry recovery technology; (2) wet recovery technology; (3) Biological recovery technology.

Dry recycling Important includes mechanical separation and high temperature thermal solution (or high temperature metallurgy). The dry recycling process is short, and the more targeted recycling is not strong. It is a preliminary stage of achieving metal separation recovery.

It is important to refer to the method of recovering the material or a ratio of the material or a privilege of the material, which is important is that the battery is crushed by physical sorting method and high temperature heat solution, or high temperature division to remove organic matter for further Element recycling. Wet recycling technology is more complicated, but the recovery rate of each price metal is high, and it is currently important to treat waste nickel battery and lithium-ion battery. Wet recovery techniques are metastasis, and transfer metal ions from electrode materials to the leaching medium, and then by ion exchange, precipitation, adsorption, etc.

Extraction in solution. Biological recovery technology has a low cost, small pollution, reusable, and is the ideal direction of future lithium-ion battery recovery technology. Biological recovery techniques are important to use microbial leaching, convert the useful components of the system into soluble compounds and selectively dissolve, to obtain a solution containing effective metal, realizing the target component and impurity components, and finally recovering lithium Metal.

At present, research on biological recovery technology has just started, and then gradually solves the cultivation of high-efficiency strains, periodic problems, and control issues related to leaching conditions. From the order of the recovery process, the first step: the pretreatment process, its purpose is to initially separate the price part of the old lithium ion battery, efficiently selectively selectively enrich the electrode material, etc., to facilitate subsequent recycling Process is going well.

The pretreatment process generally combines crushing, grinding, screening, and physical separation. The important pretreatment methods include: (1) pre-charge; (2) mechanical separation; (3) heat treatment; (4) alkali solution; (5) solvent dissolution; (6) manual disassembly, etc. Step 2: Material separation.

The pretreatment phase is enriched to obtain a mixed electrode material of the positive electrode and the negative electrode, in order to separate the co-recovery of Co, Li, etc., selectively extract the mixed electrode material. The process of material separation can also be divided into a classification technology of dry recovery, wet recovery and biological recovery: (1) inorganic acid leaching; (2) biometric leaching; (3) Mechanical chemical leaching.

Step 3: Chemical purification. Its object is to separate and purify the various high value-added metals in the solution obtained by the leaching process. The leaching solution contains multiple elements such as Ni, Co, Mn, Fe, Li, Al and Cu, wherein Ni, Co, Mn, Li is an important recovered metal element.

After adjusting the pH, the selection of Al and Fe is selected, and the elements such as Ni, Co, Mn, and Li in the leach are further processed. Commonly used recycling methods have chemical precipitation, salt analysis, ion exchange method, extraction method and electrodeposition method. Technical routes and trends in powerful lithium-ion batteries at home and abroad: Wet process and high temperature pyrolysis are mainstream comparative foreign mainstream battery recovery companies recycling process can be found, currently mainstream lithium-ion battery recovery process is wet The process and high temperature phrase are main, and a large part has been invested in the industrial production stage.

Lithium recovery economics, battery manufacturers self-disassembly or third-party dismantling model is current mainstream since 2015, with the outbreak of the new energy automotive industry, and the direction of battery materials (toward the direction of high nickel ternary materials) Development), price of cobalt, nickel and lithium carbonate / lithium hydroxide will be boosted by a certain amplitude. This makes it possible to recover the economics of the waste-old lithium ion battery. The average mileage of private car in my country is approximately 16,000 kilometers.

Under the conditions of the use of private cars, the useful life of pure electric / plug-in cars is around 4 to 6 years; related bus, rental Cars, etc. Different types of dynamic lithium-ion battery metals are different. According to authoritative institutions, the proportion of various types of electric vehicles and cycling lithium capacitance is predicted about my country's future motivational lithium-ion batteries.

It is estimated that by 2018, my country's new scrapped power lithium-ion battery will reach 11.8GWH, and the metal corresponding to recyclable is: nickel 1.8 million tons, cobalt, 2003,400 tons of manganese, 03,400 tons; estimated to 2023 In the year, the newly scrapped power lithium-ion battery will reach 101GWH, and the metal corresponding to recyclable is: nickel 119,000 tons, cobalt, 230,000 tons, manganese, 20,000 tons of lithium.

The authoritative institution is expected to have a different degree of decline in other metallic prices in addition to metal cobalt. According to this, in 2018, the market size of the recyclable metal will reach 1.4 billion yuan.

Cobalt 870 million yuan, 26 billion yuan; to 2023, the market value of the recyclable metal can reach nickel 8.4 billion yuan, cobalt 7.3 billion yuan, manganese manganese 850 million yuan, 16.

6 billion yuan of lithium 14.6 billion yuan. By establishing an economical assessment model for the income of the cost of the power lithium ion battery, the income of the recovery material output can be carried out by the following mathematical model: BPRO indicates the profit of the recovery of the waste power lithium-ion battery; CTOTAL represents the use of waste power lithium-ion batteries The total revenue of the recovered; the CDepReciation represents the depreciation cost of the waste dynamic lithium-ion battery equipment; CUSE indicates the cost of use of waste dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery process; CTAX means the taxation of waste power lithium-ion battery recycling company.

The cost of use of waste dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery and re-resource is important to include the following (1) raw material costs; (2) auxiliary material cost; (3) fuel power cost; (4) equipment maintenance cost; (5) Environment Handling cost; (6) labor cost. From the three aspects of gross profit margin, feasibility and sustainability, authoritative institutions believe that the model of battery manufacturers directly recycle the formation of closed-loop mode and third-party professional dismantling mechanism to purchase waste batteries to battery manufacturers is current mainstream power lithium electric recovery model And with better economy in the case of lithium electrical composite recovery. Suppose: (1) The current metal price (215,000 yuan / ton, nickel 777 million yuan / ton, manganese 1 million / ton, lithium 700,000 yuan / ton, aluminum 126,000 yuan / ton, iron 0.

2 million / Tons) and do not consider the benefits of other recovery; (2) Consider the use of various types of power lithium ion batteries (70% lithium iron phosphate, 7% lithium manganate, three yuan 23%) Comprehensive recovery lithium ion battery; 3) Except for other costs outside the raw material: Third-party professional institutions acquire waste lithium-ion batteries from small workshops and decomposed gross profit margin, reaching 60%; followed by the form of recycling and processing of industry alliances, gross profit margin 45%. However, in these two ways, the former (third party: purchasing small workshop) has safety and environmental problems, and current small workshop has not recognized the huge value of the lithium-electric recovery industry, the purchase price is low, so this approach does not have Continuous; the latter (industry alliance) is currently less likely to be due to the unity of relevant management regulations and legal environments, but the future will be one of the trends. The other three ways are feasible and sustainable, but the model gross profit margin of battery manufacturers directly recycled and purchased waste batteries to producers, so authoritative institutions believe that these two The mode will constitute the current mainstream recycling mode.

The recovery value of the ternary battery material is higher than other power lithium ion batteries, such as recovering the three-dimensional lithium-ion battery, the battery manufacturer recycled the model and the third-party dismantling model to the battery manufacturer's use of used batteries Quality investment value (2016) The gross profit margin has reached 55% and 48% respectively, and the power lithium-electric recycling industry will gradually achieve standardization, scale and industry alliance in the next five years. Due to its scale effect, it will have a high gross profit margin. In addition, the original producer recycled mode and third-party dismantling model to produce waste batteries still have strong economy.

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