Reasons for the reduction of electric vehicles, and common faults and mechanism analysis of lead-acid batteries

2022/04/08

  Author :Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier

Over time, the life will also decrease together, the initial good performance and good experience are gradually far away, and when they encounter these problems, they are often helpless. Many owners will push all the responsibilities to the battery, then what is the truth of the fact that the electric car life is less? Where is the problem? Generally considering the following aspects: 1. Motor problem, this will first think that the power consumption is large, such as motor dendromagnetization to understand the production date and motor type of electric vehicle motor, if the motor is matched by the controller Not high, the two cannot be effectively cooperated, then reduce energy conversion.

Motor demagnetization, inferior motor, refurbishment motor can also cause it to be effective. If electric vehicles are often overloaded, speeding, the electric machine will disability or aging as the usage time rises, which affects the energy conversion of the motor, affects the torque and endless miles of the motor. Conduct on time, facilitates life expectancy.

It is recommended that the owner does not replace the motor, the controller, do not buy low-end cheap accessories, must replace the original accessories in professional maintenance stores. 2, the controller problem, the controller is one of the core components, which is the component that controls the rotation of the motor. Electric vehicle controller microelectronic partial damage may be small, it is important to be more damaged by high power components such as power tube, capacitance.

If the power tube is damaged, it is commonly known as the explosive tube, which will cause the electric car to drive, and the instrument power light flashes or does not light. Electric automotive electric machines have resistance, implement difficulties (do not force push electric vehicles, will boast motor). The controller is damaged, and there will be short circuits, electric car insurance burned, or open trip.

Damage reason: overload, long-term overload climbing, overpressure, too large, high temperature heat dissipation. It may also be a wiring error, and the electronic component is high temperature aging (especially the capacitor). 3, the tire tire pressure problem, before the pressure travel, detect the front and rear tire pressure before and after the electric vehicle, the tire pressure is the air pressure inside the tire.

Generally, the tires produced by the regular manufacturers are marked with the most suitable tire pressure range. For electric vehicles with qualified quality, tire pressure is maintained at 310,880 kPa. In the case of insufficient tire pressure, the electric vehicle will bring a greater friction resistance to the electric vehicle motor.

In the same driving route, the air pressure is low, the tire force is large, and more power is consumed, running, and still running. 4, the brakes are not easy, and the consequences are very serious in the electric vehicle, and the brakes are not in the dark or the brakes are faulty. The brakes have faults, which will also increase the workload of the motor, resulting in the continuous current discharge of electric vehicle batteries, and the renewal mileage is inevitable.

The brake of electric cars, whether it is a hubbench or a disc brake, will encounter too tight or too loose, causing electric vehicles to advance difficulties or brakes. Such problems, if you can adjust, you can't adjust, please replace the brakes as soon as possible. 5, bearing problems can not ignore water, or wear due to long-term use, resulting in reinforcement of resistance, increased power consumption, can cause electric vehicles to be weak.

If you encounter such situations, you should replace the bearing, or add a lubricant, etc. 6, the battery also may have problems with the problem of battery life caused by the battery, the single battery has a large number of. Single battery will affect the voltage of the entire set of batteries, there is a failure or backward in the four battery packs, which will affect the entire set of batteries.

The battery is not properly maintained, and the useful life will cause the battery's attenuation, which affects performance. For example, the load is forcibly running, the discharge current is large, no limit protection, let the battery forced discharge, resulting in the internal energy of the battery to damage the battery. 7.

The charger is very critical to the output voltage of the charger, which will make the battery are dissatisfied. Take the 48V electric vehicle battery as an example, full point voltage at 58.80.

2V. If the maximum voltage of the charger load is lower than this value, the charger cannot make the electric car battery fully charged. Battery is dissatisfied, naturally affect the battery life of electric vehicles.

8, the line problem line problem is a soft fault, and the components have no problems, but the resistance occurs during the connection, and the resistance has partial pressure, and the larger the current is, the larger the voltage. The new battery is turned off, this problem is very common, and the ten eight nine of it is not far. The part of the resistor 1, the controller and the battery connector, with the plug of the motor.

Good connector is gold-plated, the general is copper or copper plated, the difference is iron. Time will oxidize, contact resistance. When the big current is passed, it will heat it, it will be burned when it is severe.

2, fuse. Contactless. The clip is not tight, the pressure is not true.

3, connected to the electric lock switch on the main circuit. 4, battery solder joint domain. 5, battery cable is too fine, or is not copper wire.

The line is not good. 6, get the wrong line. For example, the controller fine red line pool.

7, battery case output port or contact adverse contact. If a part is serious, it is easier to find, such as burning black. But if you have a little problem, it is more difficult to find.

Everything is a bit resistance, and I can't accumulate it. 1 ohmic resistance 5 amps current will show 5V pressure drop. 36V battery is only 31V voltage left there.

The following is a common fault and mechanism analysis of lead-acid batteries: 1. Lead-acid battery failure and general mechanism 1, the phenomenon of the reaction, the reactionary battery of the lead-acid battery changes the positive and negative electrode of the battery, and the inverse phenomenon is reflected Both aspects, one is due to the battery polar groups in the assembly assembly or the entire battery pole group. In this case, the phenomenon of the end voltage value is less than the sum of the end voltage when the end voltage is measured when the terminal voltage is measured, and the end voltage is smaller than the phenomenon of the end voltage.

On the other hand, the battery is used in a plurality of series in a capacity discharge, due to a low capacity of a battery (or a monomer battery) or complete loss capacity. At the time of discharge, this battery is quickly filled by other batteries, making the original negative electrode into a positive electrode, the original positive electrode becomes a negative electrode, and the end voltage is negative. Regarding the previous counterfeit fault, it can be found when measuring the battery terminal voltage (the battery composed of multiple cells) can be found that if there is a single battery, but not only the 2V voltage of the battery, but also add 2V counter voltage, end voltage to reduce 4V.

For example, a battery with a rated voltage is 12V, such as the measurement of its end voltage is around 8V, indicating that there is a monobi battery. If the measured end voltage is 4V, there are two monobi-pole, such as the measurement of its end voltage is about to -4V, there are four monobi-12-channel, such as measured its end voltage to -12V indicating that 6 monographs pole. About the latter counterfeit fault, its end voltage value (negative value) is different from the discharge condition.

Generally in detection, the battery is taken from the discharge line in time to avoid damage to the battery. 2. Short-circuit phenomenon and cause lead-acid battery is referred to in the lead-acid battery inside and negative pole groups.

The image of lead-acid battery short circuit is important in the following aspects: (1) low open circuit voltage, closed circuit voltage (discharge) quickly reaches the termination voltage. (2) When the large current is discharged, the end voltage drops rapidly to zero. (3) When opening the road, the electrolytic solution density is very low, and the electrolyte in the low temperature environment will have ice phenomenon.

(4) When charging, the voltage rises very slow, always maintains a low value (sometimes drop to zero). (5) When charging, the electrolyte temperature rises very quickly. (6) When charging, the electrolyte density increases very slow or almost no change.

(7) When charging, it does not take air bubbles or the gas is very late. The reason for the short circuit caused by lead-acid storage batteries is important: (1) The quality of the partition is not good or defect, allowing the polar active material to pass through, causing positive, negative plate virtual contact or direct contact. (2) The partition block is connected to the positive and negative plates.

(3) The active substance is expanded from the active material due to excessive deposition of the active substance, resulting in positive and negative plates to connect to the deposits in the lower edge or side edges of the positive, negative electrode plates. (4) Conductive objects fall into the battery, the negative plate is connected. (5) The lead stream formed when the welding pole is not exhausted, or the lead beans are present during the positive and negative plate, and the damper is damaged during the charge and discharge process.

3, polar sulfated phenomenon and cause polar plate sulfate is to generate white hard sulfate crystals on a plate, and it is very difficult to transform the lead in active substance when charging. The following phenomenon is important after sulfating sulfate of lead-acid battery pole. (1) The battery has risen quickly during the charging process, its initial and final voltage is too high, the final charging voltage can reach about 2.

90V / single. (2) During the discharge process, the voltage is lowered, that is, premature falling to the termination voltage, the capacity is significantly reduced by other batteries. (3) When charging, the temperature of the electrolyte rises quickly, easy to exceed 45 ° C.

(4) When charging, the electrolyte density is below normal, and the air bubbles are prematurely when charging. (5) When the battery is anatomy, the color and state of the plate can be found abnormal. The positive electrode plate is light brown (normal dark brown), the surface of the polar plate has a white sulfate spot, the negative plate is rough, and the surface is rough, and the touch is like a feeling of sand, and the plate is hard.

(6) Severe sulfuric acid salt, the lead-white crystals formed by the plate formed, and in general, the active substance cannot be restored. The following reasons why the polar sulfated sulfate is caused: (1) Insufficient charging of the battery or the initial charge interruption time is longer. (2) The battery is under long-term charging.

(3) Failure to charge after discharge. (4) Frequent excess discharge or small current depth discharge. (5) The electrolyte density is too high or too high, and the lead of sulfate will not be recovered in depth.

(6) Lead-acid battery shelving time is long, long-term use without regular charging. (7) Internal short circuit local use or battery surface water. (8) Electrolyte is not pure, self-discharge.

(9) Low electrolytic solution in the battery, exposed partial sulfate. In the case of normal use, the active material (Pb02 and Pb) on the positive and negative electrode plates is converted to small grain-shaped sulfate, which is uniformly distributed in porosity. On the active material, it is easy to charge when charging and the electrolyte contacts are returned to the original substance PBO2 and PB.

If the active material on the polar plate is gradually formed by the active material of the crystalline particles, the active material of the crystalline particles is large, and the conductivity is poor, and the conductivity is poor, and thus block the polar active material. The fine hole hinders the permeation and diffusion use of the electrolyte, and the internal resistance of the battery is added, and when charging, the lead of the thoughts of sulfate is less likely to transform the cells of the soft crystal grains to PBO2, and PB. If it is too long, the leads of these coarse and hard sulfate will lose reversible use.

As a result, the effective substance of the plate is reduced by the discharge capacity, and the service life is shortened. 4, polar bending and corrosion failure plate bending more occurs in the positive electrode plate, and the negative electrode plate rarely occurs, and some negative electrode plate bending is due to the polar plate bending and forcing the negative electrode plate. The breakage of the polar plate occurs in the process of service life, due to the corrosion of the grid, the strength is small, resulting in a plate break, especially the positive pole grid is more severe, resulting in the important cause of the polar bending: (1) The polar active substance is uneven due to the formation or coating distribution, and therefore, the electrochemical use from each portion of the charge and discharge time is weak, resulting in the expansion and contraction of the active substance volume on the plate.

Cause curvature, some caution. (2) Excess charging or excessive discharge, the expansion and contraction of the inner-layer active material, the recovery process is inconsistent, resulting in a bending of a plate. (3) When the high current discharge or high temperature discharge, the polar active material is more intense, and it is easy to cause chemical reaction to be uniform and cause a plate curved.

(4) The battery contains impurities, when the local use is caused, only small portion of the active material becomes sulfate, resulting in inconsistencies of the active substance of the entire plate, causing bending. It has the following reasons for the corrosion breakage of positive electrode plate: (1) There is a problem with the manufacturing plate gate alloy process, causing a plate that is not corrupted during charge and discharge. (2) When charging, under the condition of the anode polarization, the normal excessive charge is an important reason for the corrosion breakage of the positive electrode plate.

(3) The electrolyte density is too high, the temperature is too high, and the positive plate oxidation corrosion is intensified. (4) In the electrolytic solution of the lead-acid battery, the acid or other organic product of the positive electrode plate gate is corrosive, which will gradually corrode the front pole grid. These acids that are harmful to the positive plate, the salt may come from sulfuric acid, distilled water, or may be leached from the separator or other components, and therefore, in the charge and discharge cycle, the plate or the positive wire is constantly corroded.

(5) The procedure of the positive plate is corroded, that is, the process of the oxide film generated, so the linear dimension of the grid is added, which causes the deformation or expansion of the grid. Positive polar plate gate corrosion and deformation characteristics: (1) Electrolyte turbid, polar plate is rot. (2) The positive plate active substance, due to the corrosion of the grid, there is a loss of strength and solidification, resulting in falling off, this fall off is often a granular shape.

(3) Due to the corrosion of the positive plate gate, the active substance is devastated, which not only destroys the fine hole tissue of the active material, but also the number of effective substances gradually decreases. This inevitably causes the capacity of the battery to drop, and the loop life is shortened. Positive polar plate corrosion mechanism: (1) Prejudice oxyurization of the surface of the neutralization: When the anode is charged, the positive extract oxygen, these oxygen is in the form of a super chemically equivalent atom into the lattice of the neutrain, and transmitted by oxide The layer diffuses to the surface of the metal and oxidizes metal.

The oxidized metal is the basic process of determining the positive corrosion speed of lead, and the temperature rise is polarized, causing new oxygen diffusion velocity, and the corrosion speed is accelerated. (2) Catalytic corrosion: a catalyst in the reaction of neutralization of oxygen in podification. When oxygen is precipitated, it is in the form of free radicals in intermediate product.

For example: .oh, ˙ ˙, .h2SO4, etc.

, these intermediate products are complicated with the surface of the neutral oxide, causing the cell membrane to loles, thus dissolving the metal under the membrane, causing corrosion. (3) Lead-based lead solid phase reactor corrosion: there is a contact potential difference between lead and active substance in the grid alloy, which is the cause of electrons from lead to the metal of lead, so there is corrosion. (4) There are two crystals in the lead in the cell, namelyαPB02 andβThe one of the layers of the PB02 direct contact with the plate gate isαMost of the outer layer of PB02 isβPB02, and the basic product of the anode corrosion isαPB02.

(5) The positive electrode plate is corroded at the anode polarization, substantially along the grain boundary. Since there is an outer layer of another solid solution in the outer layer of each small crystal grain in the alloy, the interlayer interlayer between the components and the grain itself is formed between the grains, and the alloy corrosion occurs in the interlayer. 5, the active material falling lead-acid battery during charge and discharge, the active material of the plate gradually falls off due to damage, this phenomenon is important in the incompection of circulating charge, and the important feature is that there is precipitate in the electrolyte, battery capacity.

decline. When the active material is out, if the battery life is close to the termination, the fallback of the active material is normal, but in the following case, the active substance of the polar panel is deserted. (1) The negative electrode plate is not in the charge and discharge process due to improper proportion of additives.

(2) Charge and discharge and discharge and discharge, long-term over-discharge. (3) The electrolytic fluid temperature and the density are too high at the time of charging. (4) Short circuit occurred in the external circuit of the discharge.

(5) Electrolyte is not pure. (6) Polar sulfate or slate corrosion. 6.

Capacity reduces lead-acid battery discharge failure to reach a rated capacity or decrease in capacity during charging and discharge, and is generally the following causes (1) Polar group local short circuit. (2) The battery series welding site has false welding. Therefore, the initial capacity can be, as the charge and discharge process, the fake soldering site has a film, but the effect is poor.

(3) Base corrosion plate break, active material falls off. (4) Polar sulfate. (5) When the capacity is discharged, the electrolytic solution density is low or the electrolyte liquid level is not enough.

(6) Charge and discharge equipment, measurement meter is extravagance or failure. (7) When discharged, the electrolyte temperature is too low. 7.

The voltage abnormality characteristics in the charge and discharge process have the following aspects: (1) The voltage is low when the open circuit voltage is low or charged. (2) When the discharge is discharged, the voltage drops to the termination voltage stopped quickly recovering a higher voltage. (3) The voltage rise is very high when charging is very high.

When the charging is stopped, the voltage drop is too low. (4) There is a negative value when discharging. (5) The voltage rises in the time of charging and the voltage is low.

The phenomenon caused by voltage abnormalities generally has the following reasons: (1) internal short circuit, reverse. (2) Polar sulfate. (3) Polar corrosion break, active material falls off.

(4) Electrolytic liquid density is low or high. (5) Measuring instrumentation is extremely or failure. (6) Poor connection.

(7) Negative electrode contraction purification. (8) Excessive discharge. (9) Insufficient charging.

(10) Self-discharge large 8, starting performance difference leader battery start performance is not required to meet the requirements at high current discharge. It is generally caused by the following reasons: (1) Battery connection strip (Wall welding) and end post and pole column joints, raw fake welding at a common plate connection, causing poor start performance or unable to start. (2) The electrolytic solution is low, the internal resistance is large, and the block is blocked.

(3) Positive plate bending and plate sulfate. (4) Discharge equipment and battery connection contact resistance. (5) Hypertropline.

(6) active substances fall off. (7) Excessive discharge current. (8) The ambient temperature is too low.

9, the cause of the life of the cycle life, lead-acid battery life, is generally the following aspects: (1) Positive plate corrosion, negative plate expansion. (2) Hypertrophic short circuit, plate connection. (3) Damage or stripping between separators and bargaining.

(4) Improperization of charge and discharge cycle. (5) Electrolytic solution density, temperature too high or too low, liquid level high is not enough. (6) Delta welding, polar plate.

(7) Polar sulfate. (8) The charge and discharge current is too large. Second, anatomy and analysis When the lead-acid battery test is final or the battery cannot be eliminated, the battery observation is to be dissected, and the steps are as follows: 1, the appearance check (illustrated the active material has precipitation, illustrative) (1) (1) ) Check that there is no damage and cracks in the battery tank.

(2) Measure the electrolyte density value, battery-side voltage and each single-single battery voltage. (3) Check the battery end post and connect strip. 2.

Anatomy (1) After the rubber shell battery is placed in a higher temperature environment, after the sealing agent is softened, the sealing agent is removed by a knife, and the connecting strip is sawed with the iron saw, and each mass group is used. Pull out, put it in the iron plate. (2) Molding shell batting along the trough cover heat seal, the battery is sawed, and there is no virtual welding and break welding and fracture conditions at the observation of the welding joint and the pole column and the end post connection, with the iron saw Saw of the weld, extract each puzzle, put it in the iron plate.

(3) Observe the polarity, whether there is a lack of the separator, there is no breakage, the connection between the bus and the polar ears, there is no flap and no welding pseudo welding phenomenon. Observe the pole column and the bus bar, the connection of the polar column and the end post is loose, the solder welding pseudo-welding phenomenon, observed whether there is foreign matter in the extreme group. (4) Observe the polar side, the bottom has short-circuit connection phenomena and the partition in the pole position and the edge of the partition.

(5) Observe the status of electrolyte, active material deposition status, no abutment in the battery tank and whether there is cracking, damage, single-class communication, etc. (6) After completing the above observation, use iron saw saw opening plate and bus discharge connection, tape to check the positive electrode plate, the negative plate and the separator. (7) Observe whether the positive plate four-border frame has a fracture phenomenon, the surface condition of the plate, the active material falls, and the corrosion of the small ribs and the scheduling of the plates.

(8) About the tube positive plate observation wire tube has no damage, the lead core has no matching phenomenon, there is no offset in the back, there is no break in the bus, the active substances in the pipe, the degree of air tube, etc. (9) Observe the surface condition of the negative plate, there is sulfate sulfurized acidification, the active substance has no contraction and harder, there is no expansion, and fall off. (10) Observe the degree of corrosion of each partition, there is no damage, break, rolled angle, perforation, observation of the separator, wash, wash carefully.

(11) After analyzing the recording battery anatomical observation, record the results, analyze the cause of battery performance and test termination, and proposes battery anatomical analysis lead-acid batteries common fault analysis and treatment of common faults failure cause failure Treatment method The battery is insufficient 1. Still voltage low 2. low density, no predetermined requirements after charging 3.

Working time is short 4. Working time When the meter display capacity is fast 1. The charger voltage, current setting is too low.

2. Insufficient charging 3. Charger failure 1.

Adjustment, maintenance charger 2. Battery supplement charge 3. Replace the new battery battery overcharge 1.

Solt cover is yellowed, changing red 2. Housing deformed 3. Co-carbonization, deformed 4.

Positive corrosion, break 5. Pole rubber sleeve rise, aging, crack 6. Frequent water, charging, electrolyte turbidity 7.

Polar active substance is uniformly falling 8. Positive plate explosion Tube 1. charger Voltage, current setting is too high 2.

Charging time is too long 3. Frequent charging 4. Small discharge and large charging amount 5.

Charger failure 1. Adjustment, maintenance charger 2. Adjusting the charging system 3.

If you need to replace new batteries Battery over-discharge 1. Battery stationary voltage low 2. After charging, the electrolyte density is low.

2. Maintenance of the vehicle 3. If you need to replace the new battery battery short circuit 1.

Still voltage is below 2V. 2. The electrolyte density is too low 3.

The temperature is high at the time of charging 4. The forklift working time is short 1. Polater curved deformation short circuit 2.

Board missing or assembly 3. The positive electrode active material is detached, the bottom short circuit needs to replace the new battery disconnection 1. External load path When the voltage is abnormal, the current is unable to input 1.

The current cannot input 1. Welding when the pole column or polar plate is assembled. 2 External short circuit 3.

Large current discharge 4. Convergence or disconnection of connection 5. Polar Corrosion 1.

Need to repair battery 2. If necessary, replace the new battery battery to add electrolyte when the density is high: 1. Remove the electrolyte after charging Density 1.

300g / cm32. Battery stationary voltage is 3. The initial capacity is good.

After a period of time, the capacity is reduced 4. The electrolyte turbidity is low: 1. The electrolyte density is lower than the specified value after charging 2.

The battery capacity is low. Pure: 1. The battery capacity is low 2.

The electrolyte is turbid, the color is abnormal, and there is a odor. It is too high. The self-discharge is too high.

2. The liquid level is reduced. The liquid level is reduced, and the pure water is added as required.

Instead, the dilute acid is incorrectly added. The primary liquid is not pure (containing impurities 1. Battery electrical electrolyte 2.

Replace the new battery plate sulfate) 1. Normal discharge is reduced by 2. Decrease is below normal 3.

The voltage drop is fast. 4. Start charging voltage height 5.

The air bubble appears early 6. PBSO4 crystallization 1. Purchase is less than 2.

In the discharge, the placement time is too long 3. Long-term charge density 4. Electrolyte density Evergreen 5.

The liquid level is too low, and the upper portion of the plate is exposed to the outside of the electrolyte 6. Electrolyte is not pure 7. Internal short circuit 1.

overcharge 2. Repeated Charging method 3. Hydropatical active substance excessive falling 1.

When charging is raised from bottom 2. The battery capacity is reduced 1. Brown precipitation is too large.

2. White precipitation is due to excessive discharge 3. Battery Electrolytic solution is not pure 1.

Clean precipitation 2. Adjust the density 3. If necessary, replace the new battery battery reverse electrode 1.

Voltage is negative 2. The electrolyte density after charging is 1.20g / cm3 or less 3.

The positive and negative column, pole When charging, negative connection error 1. Negative electrode connection error 1. Reverse charging 2.

Replace the new battery battery leakage liquid 1. Wiring open on the night 2. Slot, cover seal, leakage night 3.

Separation 4. Cell There is a trace of traces of the outside of the outside. 1.

Covered heat seal 2. Pretty rubber ring problem 3. Sealing agent crack 4 is neglected by external force impact 1.

Repair 2. Necessary to replace new battery Suggestions: 1, battery, charging To use the regular brand and reputation, good quality, good quality, after-sales, should buy a regular brand when buying electric cars, all aspects are guaranteed. 2, try to prevent the use of fast chargers, because the speed of the fast charging station is to charge the high current charging during the period, which will cause the battery to be severely lost, battery drum bag.

3 The car is very high after driving at a high temperature, and when direct charging can cause the temperature of the battery to continue, even the critical point, and finally spontaneous combustion. 5, do not overload speed, overload speed, battery is high current discharge, causing damage to the battery polar plate, affecting battery life; 6, electric vehicles are preferably stored in the room, prevent sun rain, prevention of high temperature. .

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