Author ：Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier
An outstanding football player, the scenery of the scenery in the "Yingchao" "La Liga", etc. After the age, it will often come to the "Super Character" or "Great Alliance" to carry out "ladder", then the power lithium-ion battery acts as Outstanding representatives of the battery, who will pick up "the last stick" after "retirement"? Power lithium-ion battery recycling market, a "mustard cake" why to discuss "last", because of the current power lithium-ion battery (this power lithium-ion battery specifically refers to a lithium ion power lithium ion battery recovery or One thing that does not want to be good. Media Recently reported that the battery recovery new market is rising, as if it will fly out of a big "cake", the author believes that it should be rationally, the market is really fast, but only under the current comprehensive conditions, this cake is still painted.
"mustard". First we estimate the "cake" size, based on new energy car sales to predict the size of the power lithium-ion battery recycling market: Suppose it is retired in 4 years (capacity to 80% or less, consider the industry's initial battery technology manufacturing level) The following table: The number of waste increments in the domestic market is: 0.61, 3.
9, 2.22865 million tons (2017-2020); another algorithm, calculated according to the power lithium ion battery, in 2016, 30.7GWH, Estimated on the basis of even 140Wh / kg, according to energy, according to 4 years, 2020 new reported waste has reached 200,000 tons, which is only the result of not considered calendar year.
But why is it to be "mustard", because the current aspects "difficult to swallow": the first upstream source is difficult. Currently, the source of battery recycling is the battery pack of B products in the process. The battery pack that needs to be scrapped during the research and development process.
The second is the battery pack that the vehicle will be retired; the state of these two parts is small and the product model is uneven. Status, adding a collection cost to the source of recycling;. A power lithium-ion battery pack weight is generally greater than 200kg, handling to use the forklift and other auxiliary means, and the retired battery transport must be dangerous to transport qualifications, and store the warehouse in which the environment should be stored.
If it is allowed to place, the insulation test is regularly Battery status data is monitored, such as maintenance costs, so do not recover immediately, the waste battery is really "hot salad". The third downstream recycling is difficult. Battery recovery orders From profit perspective, the income obtained by the recovery material does not fully increate the cost of material analysis process.
The battery dismantling and material recovery process itself should have a large amount of capital investment, and the recycling manufacturers are insufficient. Who will come to the "last stick" of the lithium-ion battery, "the last stick" will be a social group or a professional company? Since the current "pick-up" is insufficient, we may wish to learn from the more mature lead-acid battery recovery status to speculate that the powerful lithium battery recovery will be the status quo of the recycling of lead-acid batteries in my country: • 34 of the qualifications of the qualified waste battery recovery qualification; · There are about 3.5 million tons of waste lead-acid batteries every year; Distributor's recovery is about 7%.
(The above is "my country Environmental News" reported why the regenerated lead ratio of regular channels is so low (15%), the author believes that the first recycling technical threshold is low, remove the lead plate, to the acid After the liquid, after heating the pot, the difference in density can be extracted; the distribution of the lead-acid battery can be dispersed, and it is necessary to concentrate on the vehicle 12V power supply, electric bicycle, telecom base station reserve power supply, etc., the monomer can be recovered And there is a wide range of distributions and is not conducive to large-scale overall recovery. What is the company's lead-acid recovery? Excluding lead-acid battery recycling network system construction project, three-phase waste lead-acid battery comprehensive solution project, waste lead-acid battery plastic regeneration project, zinc copper slag resource comprehensive utilization project, and used to repay bank loans.
Company stocks on July 3rd. "· Nandu power supply or above statement states the status quo of lead-acid battery recovery: first large-scale lead recovery is to make money, but gross profit is very low (typical is less than 10%); professional recycling raw materials (15% professional recovery), most lead Recycling by social group. Then, the future, lithium-electric recovery will also be such a situation, the author believes that there is three: · The consequences of unregulated disposal.
Lead-acid pollution is intangible chemical pollution, slow and not easy to detect, and the real chemical pollution of dynamic lithium electricity is low, but the tangible high-pressure system has brought straight safety hazards. It is incorrect to consume will combustion explosion. More clear security hazards and stronger regulations; · Different technical thresholds for recycling.
The battery retired from the car is generally in the form of battery pack. The current battery pack voltage is greater than 300V. There is no way to start, and the safety risk is extremely safe; even if the dismantling of the battery pack is successfully carried out, the complex chemical system of the lithium battery is added, and the complexity of the recovery process is added; · The recovered aggregation is different.
The lead-acid battery bicycle is small, and the gathering is inconvenient; but the number of passenger cars and commercial vehicle units equipped with power lithium electric vehicles is more accumulated, along with this year's logistics car, and the operation company aggregated electric logo will also welcome Come to aggregate the future. In summary, the solving of the power lithium battery will be more aggregated, and the professional recycling company will play a critical role. 2.
Which type of professional company will "the last stick"? Who is willing to take the "last stick" of lithium-electric recycling, we return to the nature, willing to receive interest or forced to be obligated. In combination, the driving force of the recovery includes three parts: the ladder use value + recovered material value + government policy driver, the value of the ladder is that the residual value of the battery is greater than the value of the source channel; the value of material recycling is to solve the battery cost less than recycling Get the cost of materials; policy driver is that the forward subsidy benefits are greater than the reverse violation cost, we can break down one by one: first is the ladder. This is actually a "relaxed" process in the "Recycling" process, and it is not even possible to recover.
Who will do it? Obviously, if there is a profit, the vehicle factory and the battery plant pen direct investment are more advantageous, because the two cores can be used as the ladder, the first is the screening of "good batteries", the second is low cost Reconstruction of battery packs; screening of "good batteries". How to evaluate the battery is good, although the recycling company, as a third party, can be used to detect the battery by detecting the battery, such as measuring the voltage internal resistance of the scrap battery, and complicated by the complexity, after being removed, HPPC, or some temperature durable experiments to do a deeper judgment, but it is obvious that the battery in the "peak" period is can't get it. Some batteries have experienced over-filled, single from open circuit voltage and communication.
The measurement of the internal resistance is unable to judge, but these are the original manufacturers of batteries or the vehicle factory can be obtained by reading DTC or calibration historical data; on the other hand, the decay curve of the battery is often "origin" has more deeper Research, some batteries are designed to be 80%, and the actual attenuation of the battery will be steep. These are often the design details that the third party wants to make a ladder use the company. This block is obviously necessary to power the lithium-ion battery at the beginning of the design, it should be considered in the design of the module structure and BMS design.
How to reduce the battery's reconstruction cost, how to design the battery cell into a full life cycle slowly attenuation The battery, the use time of the calendar life is long enough, the battery solution is considered to be considered, this is actually weighing, to stand in the perspective of the full life cycle of the battery. Obviously, these should also be completed before the battery is shipped, so Xiaoyu believes that this piece is also the advantage of the battery factory or the entire vehicle (PACK factory of the whole vehicle), and they will maximize the interests. At present, the shipments of Beiqi, BYD, etc.
, and CATL, Hefei Guoxuan, etc., the battery factory, the layout of the ladder, the second look, the recycling of materials. At present, there are two mainstream technology routes for the recycling of power lithium electrical materials.
One is the so-called "dry method", which is based on physically dismantling and pulverization, recycling battery, other auxiliary valuable materials, such as copper aluminum foil, etc. Negative electrode material, etc. The material is another ladder; another technical route, such as domestic Greenmei, can be called "wet method", by dissolving, to obtain a solution of noble metal elements such as cobalt nickel, and then use liquid phase synthesis to obtain new Trimer positive material.
The difficulty is difficult, but the recycled element is higher. At present, the previous route is more suitable for recycling of lithium iron phosphate in the stage. The tin lithium is about to enter a large number of scrapped time points, and the recovered iron lithium itself is biased towards the low-end market, more incorporated in cost, so use " The dry method is more appropriate; the latter route is clearly more suitable for the recovery of the three-yuan materials, suitable for the extraction of higher purity values, and is more immediate.
Observing the recycling of Greenmetan 2014 - 2016 gross profit trend, the three-dimensional positive material business This piece is basically on the changing trend, from 15% to 22%, and opposing the business of other three yuan positive material materials in China, subject to The rise in the price of raw material metal, most of the same period is declining, which is the gain brought by the closed loop of the recycling material system to Green. Therefore, this block should be a material company or a professional third-party material recycling company to deep tillage, you can maximize the benefits, because they own the reserves of the material synthesis process, can also put the recovery product to process, reduce costs. Greenmeal, the lithium-lying lithium industry has made a key layout in this direction.
Finally, discuss policies. Let's take a look at the US policy-driven mode, and we are in the industry associations supply methods and consumer education. Environmental surcharges are also used to subsidize the recycling cost, and the United States has added mandatory and traceability through the law.
Germany is similar to the United States, which can say that both sugar and sticks. my country's government has also introduced many policies, including clear subsidy policies include: · Shanghai, 2014, Shanghai, "Shanghai Encourage Purchase and Using New Energy Vehicle Traffic Method", for car plus manufacturers, each recycle new energy car Dynamic lithium-ion battery, give 1000 yuan subsidy. (None of the revised subsidy in March 4, 2016) · Shenzhen City requires new energy vehicles, including local processing company and filed foreign processing company in Shenzhen's legal person sales company, should press 20 yuan / kWh standard special special account for power lithium ion battery recycling funds, given 10 yuan / kWh recycling subsidies for powered lithium-ion battery recycling companies.
The two intensive subsidies issued above, "Notice on Printing and Distributive Responsibility Extension System) and the Normal Battery Code Rules" by the last "GBT34014-2017 automotive power storage battery" Mandatory rules are more effective. But the stick is not as good as sugar, you have to make the recycler really taste the sweetness is true driving force. The "last rod" of the power lithium-ion battery is finally decomposed from anyone who is more suitable to do: the ladder is more useful to give the power lithium-ion battery factory or the vehicle factory.
They can lay out through straight investment or joint venture. Their advantage is that the battery's source channel and the ladder of the battery lifecycle are designed. With the improvement of battery performance, the value of the ladder will also be more and more big, there will be More vehicle and battery factories are to invest in this category, thereby spreading the cost of full life; materials recycling should be handed over to battery material processing companies and professional third-party companies to pick up.
The material company uses itself to understand the material synthesis process, deep digging materials recovery solution technology, reducing the material cost of material in the case of high metal prices. As a third-party recycling company, you can focus on the use of a number of logistics vehicles and commercial vehicles retired by the battery. This part of the battery is lower than that of the passenger cars, and the value of the tradder is also low.
This will be a third-party professional recycling. The company's "cake", using the route of the national multi-location layout, saving logistics costs, increasing the scale of recycling, will be their layout. .
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