Author ：Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier
Power battery recycling has brought "tightening spell". The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced the latest information, my country's power storage battery accumulated with more than 131GWH, industrial scale ranked first. Considering the use of batteries is typically 5 to 8 years, the new energy vehicle batteries of vehicles or long-lived vehicles promoted by 2009 to 2012 are basically eliminated.
According to comprehensive measurement of my country's Automotive Technology Research Center, 2020, my country's pure electric (including plug-in) passenger car and hybrid passenger car battery accumulated scrap volume will reach 12-17 million tons. Such a huge power battery has come to the retired period. If you do not properly dispose and maximize the utilization, on the one hand, it will threaten public safety, causing difficult environmental pollution, on the other hand, will also form a waste of valuable metal resources.
Dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling, imminent. In 2018, the Industry Outbreak, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued a series of policies of the "Interim Measures for the Recycling Management of New Energy Automobile Power Battery Recycling Management", which has indicated that "dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery" is about to enter the standardized management stage; second this year The 12-year Ministry of Industry and Information Department announced the "New Energy Automobile Power Battery Recycling Research Report", once again reported the scrap-in-action lithium-ion battery pollution prevention and treatment. In 2019, the national two sessions were clearly suggested in the entitled "proposal to speed up the upgrade to create a new energy dynamic lithium-ion battery full life cycle value chain".
, Logo, packaging, transportation, and designated handover, fixed-point disassembly, etc., issued a series of management methods and regulatory methods; Form a consolidation system for a new energy power lithium-ion battery. Compared with national policies, the methods developed in all parts are more meticulous.
The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei government announced in December 2018, the implementation method of the new energy vehicle power battery recycling and utilization of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, "2-4 waste power battery dismantles and ladder use plants were completed by 2020. Shenzhen City directly proposes a company that sells new energy vehicles, according to 20 yuan / kW, standard special account for power storage battery recovery, and 50% of the company that has been submitted to the power storage battery recovery according to the requirements of the audit. Give subsidies for the company, subsidy funds for power storage batteries.
Shenzhen also became the first city to establish a powerful lithium-ion battery recovery subsidy. Under such intensive policies, more and more companies have begun to target the "new cake" of the power storage battery recovery system. In fact, in 2018, the waste-powered lithium-ion battery recovery market reached 5 billion yuan, 2020 to 2023, the scale of the waste-powered lithium-ion battery recovery market will further increase to 136-31.
1 billion yuan. Power lithium-ion battery recycling, ushered in its industry outbreak. Domestic recycling mode is to be built, there are two kinds of power-based lithium-ion battery recycling.
One is the main plant uses sales channel construction and retired battery recycling system, recycling of retired battery handover comprehensive utilization company handling or cooperating with its cooperation with its residual value. Beiqi Xin Energy, Guangqi Mitsubishi and other 45 host plants have set up 3204 recycling service outlets, important in the area of Beijing-Tianjin-Tianbei, long triangle, Pearl River Delta and central energy vehicles, and important to 4S shop Existence. The other is the third party as the main body, by the ladder, regenerate use of the company to cooperate with the automobile, battery production company, to build a shared recycling service network, centralized recycling of new energy vehicles for new energy vehicles.
Among them, the national power grid has built a ladder in Beijing Daxing and Zhangbei, a demonstration of lithium-manganese acid-based ion battery energy storage system, and has formed a decommissioning battery sorting assessment technology platform, which has developed an efficient and reliable battery management system. Beijing consissers core developed a ladder to use the optical storage system, and is building a powerful battery pack assessment system based on big data. Beijing Pleide and Beiqi and other cooperation implementing the energy storage power station project, container storage project, etc.
BYD, Guoxuan High-class company uses the retired power battery, producing a ladder using battery products in the field of preparation. Wuxi Green Mei and SF Company explored the use of batteries for urban logistics vehicles, Zhongtianhong, etc. It is worth mentioning that when the power battery capacity is attenuated to 80% or less, it cannot fully meet the vehicle power demand, but can be used in other fields.
However, due to the small amount of power storage battery, the ladder is used in most of the experimental demonstration stage, concentrated in the fields of electricity, energy storage. In addition, from ecological design, production control to information sharing, there are still many problems in the field of ladder, such as green selection, standardization and versatility design, easy disassembly structure design, and easy lane, design, etc.; power battery products There are still differences in consistency; the industry chain upstream company has no mechanism in communication agreements, historical data, etc.
, etc.;. Unlike the tradder utilization, it is still in the exploration stage, and the renewable use of the waste battery has now formed a certain scale.
Specifically, the dismantling, Hubei Greenmei, Hunan Bangpu, etc., has developed an automated dismantling kit, Beijing Saidi has developed electrolyte and diaphragm dismantling recovery process. Regeneration uses wet metallurgy and physical repair law.
In terms of wet metallurgy, Hunan Bangpu has developed a "directional circulation and reverse product positioning" technology, Hubei Greenmei has developed "liquid phase synthesis and high temperature synthesis" technology. In terms of physical repair, Saide is automated by battery monomer, and is divided and sorted by material repair processes. However, the above-mentioned industry still has a non-high recovery rate, and the compatibility of multiple battery recovery is not strong.
Up to now, the regeneration use of relevant countries and industry standards are still accelerating. Alternatively, as the person in charge of a local branch of my country Tower, "In actual operation, the business model recycling of dynamic lithium-ion batteries is not mature. Current dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling is in the primary stage ".
De / Day / US battery recycling plan dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling, German Volkswagen related experience or reference. Including Japan, the United States, etc. also has already set up its own powered lithium-ion battery recovery system.
The public recently announced the recycling of the power lithium-ion battery material, and the short time goal is to achieve a recycling of 1200 tons of battery materials per year in 2020. The plan will begin with the Salzgitter plant near Braunschweig. Volkswagen announced that a test production line is being built to recover existing power lithium-ion battery packs.
It will reduce its carbon emissions by limiting e-waste and raw materials, while supplying battery materials required for 15 million electric vehicles in the next few years. "Ten years, we have been studying how to restore raw materials. The most important of these is cobalt, lithium, manganese and nickel, "The Volkswagen Technology Planning Director Thomastiedje said it already has the accumulation of systemic sustainable battery technology, and is further developing.
It is understood that the Volkswagen is about to launch the first batch of batteries in the "ID" model series based on MEB platform will be shipped later in this year. The recycling capacity is ready to be completed in 2020, the initial goal is to recover 1200 tons annually. Material, this is equivalent to 3000 sets of battery systems.
Volkswagen expects that the new electric motor type battery will be reused. "Because the scale of the car battery will be very huge, we are more willing to recycle and build their own recycling capacity and system." Tiedje said.
Volkswagen's long-term goal of recycling of dynamic lithium-ion battery is to recover 97% of raw materials, more than 53% of Volkswagen today. And Salzgitter's new plant will increase this proportion to 72% from now on. On the recycling path, the EV battery that returns to the public will be evaluated as one of the two ways.
The first is "Second Life" option, which can include in the charging station and energy storage area. In large activities, as a spare power supply, it is also possible to apply electric vehicles supply electric vehicles for long-distance travel in a quick charging war deployment. If you can't choose the second service life, then you will enter the second way, the EV battery will be recycled in Salzgitter.
"In this process, individual battery components will be chopped first, then the material will be dry and sieved, then extract'Black powder'This includes valuable cobalt, lithium, manganese and nickel raw materials, will be separated separately, and then available for production of new batteries again. "Volkswagen said, in the entire group, by 2025, its vehicle will have about 150GWH battery capacity per year, which is equivalent to about 50 billion euros of procurement costs. By selecting a circular economy option, the company means that it will save expensive waste treatment and the cost of purchasing raw materials, so the Salzgitter plant has a cost of costing costs for the public.
At the same time, the project also helps Volkswagen from the influence of market and geopolitical factors, such as global lithium demand required to support electric vehicles or increased cobalt mining decreased by producing countries. In fact, with the same way, cost, supply, environmental protection, etc. Including Toyota, Daimler, BMW, Nissan and other car companies have actual movements in this field in the past few years, and the important way to jointly layout through the cooperation with battery companies and materials companies.
At the same time, including the United States, Japan, Australia and other countries have also made top design and planning from the policy level: in Japan, in September last year, the Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association and the Japanese Economic Industry and province organized a lot of car companies to initiate a motivation. Lithium-ion battery recycling project, the purpose is to establish an efficient and sustainable battery recovery system, which is borne by all parties. A organization called Japanese Automobile Circular Use Collaboration will be responsible for operating joint ventures funded by many car manufacturers.
The United States, currently, the collection and recovery rate of lithium-ion batteries is less than 5%. Recently, the US Department of Energy (DOE launched the first lithium-ion battery recovery center called Recell Center. The goal of DOE is to reduce the battery cost to $ 80 (about 480 yuan), and recover 90% of the key material from the collected battery.
The collaborators in the Recell center will focus on four key research areas to achieve a profitable lithium-ion battery recovery, in which the industry is adopted: First, the direct positive recycling, the focus will develop recycling process, there will be directly returned to the new battery Products without expensive processing; second, recover other materials, focusing on creating technology that can economically recover other battery materials, thereby supplying additional income sources. The third is the recycling design, which will develop new battery design, optimization to make future batteries easier to recover; four is to develop and utilize modeling and analysis tools to help guide the effective way to guide R & D and verify the work within the center.
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