Author ：Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier
Abstract: Improve the service life of the lead-acid battery, except for improved production technology elements, the maintenance and repair of the battery is also a very important link, effective battery maintenance and repair methods help to extend battery life. This paper describes the meaning of the working principle and life of electric vehicle, analyzes the problem of electric bicycle battery charging and discharge process, and proposes a method of extending battery life, introducing some daily maintenance methods and the usage of existing repair instruments. Key words: electric bicycle; lead-acid battery; maintenance 0 Introduction Car energy system is an important obstacle to electric vehicle commercialization, whether it is still foreseeable in the future, most important aspects of electric vehicles will be related to developing different kinds of energy.
Electric vehicles have multiple types such as battery, fuel power cell, supercapacitor and flywheel. Due to the technical maturity and economy of the battery, the battery will become an important car energy for electric vehicles in the current and future for a long time. For a long time, important issues in electric bicycle batteries are short service life, often failing to reach the normal use deadline.
From the use of electric bicycle batteries at home and abroad, it is found that they have been made in addition to manufacturing materials and production processes. This paper analyzes the impact of lead-acid battery charging and improper discharge to battery life, and proposes some maintenance methods that help to extend battery life during use, and the use of related repair instruments. 1 Electric vehicle lead-acid battery is currently capable of using the following four power storage batteries, ie the valve-controlled lead-acid-free maintenance storage battery, colloid lead-acid battery, nickel-hydrogen storage battery, and lithium ion battery.
The colloid lead-acid battery is an improved type of lead-acid battery, which is superior to the valve-controlled lead-acid battery with colloidal electrolytic solution. The cost of nickel-hydrogen storage batteries and lithium ion battery is too high, and the price is expensive, and it has not been further promoted. The lead-acid battery is reliable, the production process is mature, the price is low, and is one of the commercially available electric vehicles.
1) Battery battery work principle The negative electrode of the lead-acid battery is made of sponge-shaped lead, and the positive electrode is made of neutralized lead, and the sponge-shaped lead and neutral leads are active substances, and the aqueous solution of 1.28 is aqueous solution ( Electrochemical reaction in electrolyte). Discharge reaction: PB + PB02 + 2H2S04 = 2PBSO4 + 2H2O charge reaction: 2PBSO4 + 2H2O = Pb + PBO2 + 2H2SO4 lead-acid battery charge, turn the positive and negative poles of positive and negative sulfate, the sulfuric acid fixed therein.
The ingredient is released into the electrolyte, which can regenerate the positive electrode of the neutral lead, and the concentration of the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte is constantly increasing; The reaction of the sponge-shaped lead and the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte becomes sulfate, and the concentration of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte gradually decreases. 2) Composition of the battery and the lead-acid-sealed battery of the important member are composed of positive, negative electrode plates, separators and electrolytes, battery tanks and connecting strips (or lead parts), terminals and exhaust valves. A battery is generally combined by three single-color (6V batteries) or 6 single-only (12V batteries).
Each single piece is overlapped with a plurality of sheets of a negative electrode plate (one of the negative plates than the positive electrode plate), and the intermediate microfibrial separator is isolated. The number of positive electrode plates were welded together to form a positive electrode group, and the same number of negative electrode plates were welded to form an aperture group, positive, and negative bodies were installed in the battery slot constituting a monomer battery. Single battery or connecting strip between the single-cell battery or the connecting strip is connected together in series.
Battery slot cover with sealant bonding. The first tail single is taken out of the terminal, leading the positive and negative poles. The plate is the core component of the battery, and is known as the "heart" of the battery.
Polar vulcanization is one of the common faults of batteries and is also one of the important factors of battery damage. The partition is known as the battery "third electrode". It is used to isolate positive, negative poles, prevent short circuit.
As the carrier of the electrolyte, it can absorb a large amount of electrolytic solution, and the use of ionic diffusion (ion conductive). For the sealing battery, the separator also acts as a "channel" of oxygen to the negative electrode plate as a positive electrode plate, so that it smoothly establishes an oxygen circulation and reduces water loss. Using ultrafine fiberglass is the key to preventing the drive battery for maintenance.
The electrolyte is important from distilled water with sulfuric acid, which is mixed with some additives. Important use: First, participate in electrochemical reactions, is one of the battery active materials; the second is to generate electricity, the battery is migrated by ion migration in the electrolyte, which enables electrochemical reactions to carry out smooth. 2 Battery charge and discharge problems and their hazard electric vehicle batteries generally replace new batteries in about a year, and it is a relatively heavy burden on electric car users.
The charge and discharge cycle of the battery can reach more than 300 times, and the actual use of the battery is often found far below this charge and discharge cycle. One work cycle of the battery is a charging and discharging process, so the charge and discharge process has a crucial impact on the battery life. 1) Insufficient charging and overcharge When the lead-acid battery is charged, the positive and negative ethllar plates cannot be completely converted into a sponge lead and lead, and some sulfuric acid leads are less than timely reduction and remain on the plate, residue Lead of sulfate will precipitate and recrystallize on a plate.
If the long-term charging is insufficient, the lead crystals of sulfate will cause the plate vulcanization, the battery quality is poor, and the life is lowered. Conversely, if the battery is overcharged, the amount of oxygen appears in the negative electrode is greater than the adsorption capacity of the negative electrode, so that the internal pressure of the battery is increased, resulting in a gas spill, the electrolyte, can also cause the active substance to soften or fall off, and the active material is reduced by falling off, so that the battery is reduced The capacity drops, when the active material is reduced to a certain degree of active material, the battery can not perform the use, the battery life is shortened. Currently, many electric automatic batteries, using a year or even months, a large number of batteries have lost the scrapped in the absence of the belly, and most of them are seriously overcharge leading to heat loss.
2) There are two important damage factors in high current discharge and over-discharge storage battery: one is a large current discharge. The general lead-acid battery maximum discharge current is 12A, and the electric bicycle selects a colloidal battery, so the maximum discharge current is smaller. When the electric bicycle is at a current start, the battery is a large current discharge.
At this time, the surface of the plate is rapidly generated by lead, which is isolated from the reactive substance in the electrolyte and the deep layer, which increases the internal resistance of the battery, and the voltage decreases. Rate increase, can not play the performance. If the driver continues to use electric start, the battery is further excessively excessively large current discharge.
In this way, a large amount of sulfate is generated in a short period of time, the volume is excessively expanded, and the binding force of the active material is lowered, and the plate is deformed, curved, and the accelerated active material is detached until the plate break is damaged. Second, over-discharge, over-discharge can increase the grating corrosion, there is a high resistance layer in the gate active material interface, and cause the positive electrode active substance to soften and fall off, so that the battery discharge capacity is lowered, and the battery is early failure. 3 Run Maintenance of Battery 1) The battery's proper maintenance of the battery is important is determined by its intrinsic quality.
The battery can extend the service life in a certain sense, but this is conditional. Normal battery, if there is a good use and maintenance, you can give full play to battery potential and achieve the life of the service; otherwise, not only can the battery potential, but also the service life will be significantly shortened. (1) When charging the battery is discharged, the saline reaction (vulcanization reaction) will begin to charge, timely charging, the lead-to-the-active sponge-shaped lead and the lead, for 12 hours, activity Lead of sulfate will be crystallized again into larger crystal particles, which is irreversible salt (vulcanization).
If each ride is charged in time, the battery will extend the battery life in a shallow cycle. In the event of a battery system, there are two battery-side voltages below 2.18V, or the battery discharge is more than 20% or the shelving deactivation time is more than 3 months, or the full floating charge operation is 6 months.
Charging. (2) Select the charger charger that matches the battery determines the size of the battery's charging current, and the charging method directly affects the life of the battery. The capacity and voltage of the battery pack determine the parameters of charging, so the charger should be matched with the battery characteristics and the charger that prevents heat, out of control.
Make sure the battery can be full, will not cause an abnormal battery capacity due to the incarnation of the battery capacity, but also ensure that the battery will not be overflow due to overcharge. (3) Develop a good riding method First, don't start directly at the beginning of the instance, ride, encounter climbing, you can add human riding, avoid sudden acceleration. Because the instant current can reach more than ten amps, the long-term current discharge will increase salt, which will prevent the battery temperature to form water, polar deformation, active material falling, so that the battery life is shortened; ride The line should use the road conditions ingenious use of sliding, try to reduce the forced brakes and repeatedly start, so it can save energy and extend the battery life of the battery.
If the taxiing process is not consumed, on the battery, occasionally let it take a break, there will be electricity when the two substances in the battery will have electricity. But when they have a chemical reaction, it is actually from one end to the other end. The chemical reaction of matter when the substance is in its original position, so it is a balanced opportunity for these ingredients when the power supply period is suspended.
If these liquid substances return to their positions, the battery can have greater power. So, use different riding methods to protect the battery is useful. In addition, reduce the weight of the body, remove unnecessary decorative parts, do not carry heavy objects.
(4) Try to discharge less as little as possible, but also regular depth discharges of lead-acid batteries on the car is only one-way discharge when ignition, and the power generation machine will automatically charge the battery after ignition, and do not cause battery depth discharge. The electric bicycle is impossible to charge when riding, often more than 60% depth discharge, depth discharge, the lead concentration of sulfate will increase in the deep sulfate in the polar plate. However, it is also necessary to carry out regular depth discharge, generally 1 to 2 depth discharges for 2 months, which is beneficial to battery capacity.
The so-called depth discharge refers to the complete discharge of the first undervoltage protection under normal load conditions, or complete discharge with the discharge instrument, that is, the voltage dropped to 1.75V. Then charge the electric car to the electric vehicle, which will make the battery capacity slightly improved.
(5) Enable voltage-temperature compensation function The battery is very sensitive to temperature, battery voltage and ambient temperature, it is recommended to enable voltage temperature compensation function. Single voltage a temperature compensation coefficient is different from the type of battery, usually 2 ~ 3.6mv / ° C.
2) The use of battery repair instruments In recent years, the domestic battery's various pulse repair instruments are dazzling, and their functions are also said to be treated. Different models of meter measurement results are large, due to the measurement frequency, measurement method (phase difference method, effective value method, modulation demodulation, comparison method, etc.) and measurement current difference, making Differentiated the measurement results of the same piece of battery using different measuring instruments.
The difficulty of choosing instruments, and the credibility of meter measurement results. (1) The working principle of the susulfur charger can be removed by the sulfur charger: a method of reducing the cell crystallization of the battery of the battery periodically using 10% to 20% overcharge. In addition to the sulfur charger in the charging, it can cause or overcharge, but also ignore the battery discharge process is the fact that the battery discharge process is the fact.
Therefore, the effect is not satisfactory, most users will give up this repeated investment in sulfur after the charger equipped with electric vehicles. (2) Lead acid storage delayer is alleged, as long as the lead-acid storage delay instrument is connected to the battery pack, the battery can be repaired by charging, storage, and discharge, can be extended. Battery life is doubled, but after experimentation, the effect is not obvious.
(3) The battery extension restorer utilizes electron pulse functions, emitting electronic pulse waves through the device, continuously removes the sulfuric acid crystals on the plate, remove the vulcanization of the lead-acid battery, and effectively prevent the emergence of new vulcanized crystals, thereby Restore the labor battery to regenerate the waste battery. After recent years of practice, it is an effective and practical method. Working principle of battery extension repair: According to the principle of atomic physics and solid physics, the sulfur ions have five different levels of energy levels, each particular energy level has unique resonant frequencies, in a metastable level state.
Ions will tend or move to the most stable minimum level (covalent key level), which occurs by supplying a certain amount of energy, making the activated molecules to move to a higher level of energy, so that To dissolve the free ions of the electrolyte, participate in electrochemical reactions. Use of battery extender repair: 1 By continuously charge a special pulse current, the lead precipitate on the cover electrode plate is gradually decomposed, and the electrode plate is not damaged; 2 is decomposed by lead-down of sulfate into lead, lead, water, water In the electrolytic solution, reduce the capacity of the battery, extend the life of the life (stripped sulfate); 3 When the battery is discharged or depth, a large amount of bubbles will occur, these attached The insulated air bubble on the plates reduces the effective area of the electrode plate, causing the irreversible damage of the plate. Special pulses in the battery extension repair can remove these bubbles on the plate, protect the battery electrode plate, and prolong the battery life very effectively.
The home battery extension fixer is to repair and maintain the battery using pulse electric waveforms, it is necessary to use for a long time. Battery extension fixer generally have two ways to pick up on the battery (parallel). One is two plugs, one plug is inserted on the battery charger, and the other plug is coupled to the charger plug; the other is red, black two wiring, respectively, the positive and negative electrical electrode, respectively.
This way is higher installation requirements, to open the box of the battery pack, solder the wiring on the positive, negative electrodes, and then use double-sided adhesive to secure the battery extension restore in the air unit in the battery pack. Working 24 hours after installation, better placing and maintaining battery use. In practice: The latter way is more suitable for repair and maintenance of electric bicycle batteries.
4 Conclusion The destruction caused by improper charging of the battery during the use of the battery is not ignored, it directly affects the battery life of the battery. Through the analysis of the lead-acid battery charge and discharge process, it is further understood that the influence of the battery damage on the battery damage is further understood, and the user's maintenance consciousness is improved. Let the user join the maintenance work, and it is undoubtedly feasible to the use of the battery.
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