The lack of power lithium battery industry: battery recycling


  Author :Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier

The development of new energy vehicles has driven the great development of the dynamic lithium-ion battery industry, and the output has risen many times between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, the battery industry investment is approximately 1 billion yuan. So many batteries, 5, 6 years, enter the massive elimination period, who is recycling? Where is the recycling industry? Unfortunately, these two problems have no answers now.

In the past year, there have been a record of our country with an enemy of the world: new energy car production and sales. In 2015, my country's new energy vehicle production reached 340,500, and global production has just exceeded 500,000 vehicles. The sales volume reached 3,311 million, of which pure electric vehicle production and sales reached 254,600, and 247,500 (the rest were inserted).

The new energy car market share exceeds 1%, whether in accordance with any standard, the market cultivation stage of the new energy vehicle pain is about to become a history, enter the large-scale popularity stage. One year of production and sales exceeded the premium of all years, there is no doubt that the explosive rose is rising. The new energy car (in fact, the electric car is mainly) the industry chain has been rapidly established, and the production of dynamic lithium-ion batteries has entered an unprecedented peak period.

It is worth mentioning that commercial vehicles have produced 102,500, of which 6-8 meters of Zhongba car occupied by 80% of commercial vehicles. The latter depends on the phenomenon of "demand explosion" in central transfer payment and local financial subsidies. Although the absolute number of commercial vehicles is smaller than the passenger car, the number of batteries used is poured: commercial vehicles use 70% power lithium-ion battery.

The technical route of the battery recycling is not mature, and the power lithium-ion battery is not allowed. However, after 5 or 6 years, the energy storage capacity of the powered lithium-ion battery will drop to around 80%, affecting the life and user experience, this is time to replace it. The full life of the power lithium-ion battery may be more than 20 years, longer than the city's life.

Its life-life is generally calculated in accordance with the number of charge and discharge, and the positive and negative of the battery is very different, and there is a big difference in charge and discharge. The power lithium-ion battery has experienced lead-acid batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries and fuel power lithium batteries (the latter is almost Toyota unique technology). Lead-acid battery has low cost, reliable performance, recovered treatment technology, but is affected by factors such as energy and cycle, lead-acid battery importance to low-speed short-distance vehicles or mild mixed electric vehicles.

Even if you use less frequent (no more than 30 kilometers per day), the life of the lead-acid battery is only about 2 years. Moreover, it will cause serious pollution to the environment in the production and recovery process, and lead-acid batteries have been excluded from the mainstream lineup of lithium-ion battery. Nickel-hydrogen batteries are vigorously promoted by Toyota, Ford and General.

Ford's RMger pure electric car and Toyota Priith hybrid vehicle are all use a nickel hydrodynamic lithium-ion battery, but the battery is low and the hydrogen storage is difficult, generally applied to hybrid vehicles, as auxiliary power, difficult to apply Pure electric car. Since 2006, the truly large line is the highest energy density of lithium-ion power lithium-ion batteries. Lithium iron phosphate ion battery such as BYD vigorously.

It is worth noting that BYD does not supply technical means for battery recovery. As for the fuel power lithium battery, Toyota already has a recycling means, but there is no commercialization in a short time in my country. Therefore, the important issues we face are still the recycling of lithium-ion powered lithium-ion batteries.

Even if only the lithium-ion battery is considered, there is also a lot of cell type, which leads to recycling technical routes quite complex. Battery must be preprocessed first, including discharge, disassembly, pulverization, sorting. The plastic and metal housing after dismantling can be recovered, but the cost is high: because the residual voltage is still as high as hundreds of volts (excluding 18650 batteries), there is a risk; the battery housing is in order to safely, the package is in the form of non-removal.

Open quite feet. In terms of the pre-treatment link, it is definitely a competent sale. Even if the lithium ion battery, the positive material is also a five-flowers, the mainstream is lithium cobaltate, lithium manganese acid, lithium nickel-cobalt-oxanate, lithium iron phosphate, etc.

Using a solution of acid-base solution, then the metal oxide is extracted with a variety of chemical procedures. However, the ingredients of these oxides are different, and the mixture is more difficult. In advance, according to the positive electrode material, the cost is not low.

Recycling the positive metal, which is already the most profitable one of the battery recovery lines. But the program is too complicated, and the company will work, unless the metal price is high in 2011. Now commodities and non-ferrous metals, rare earth products are in low valleys, using these methods to recover the metal is quite discouraged, and more troublesome troubles are more troublesome.

According to the current technical level, single waste liquid is treated, it is enough to eat poor recycled metal revenue. The negative material is graphite (silicon battery is just a laboratory scale), which is too cheap, only to do discard buried treatment. Fortunately, the graphite itself does not pollute the environment, only the space is occupied.

Under the current technical conditions, no company will take the initiative to invest in the recycling industry. Then there is only the way to deal with this way. As for the highly hopeful graphene, super capacitance and other battery methods, its biggest advantage is that there is no need to recover (there is no resource worth recovering), abandonment does not pollute.

But its technical difficulty may still force us to use existing technical methods. Policy is not all energy from 2014, and the production of dynamic lithium-ion batteries will reach the extent to which it is in short. This is obviously derived from the dual traction use of policies and markets.

The recycling industry is still in the extent of dispersible mess. In fact, even if the industry authorities (the Ministry of Development, the Ministry of Development, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology are unclear, what is the main one-scale power lithium-ion battery recycling company, how is the recycling capacity?. The reason for this situation, naturally in the current technical means, there is no ability to create recycling profits.

In other words, the new value created cannot offset the cost of recycling costs. The business of the kill is done, and the sale of the business is unmanned. In the late 2020, the power lithium-ion battery on the new energy car in the earliest sales of the earliest selling is to replace it.

In view of the current sales situation of the new energy car, the waste battery to be dealt with will exceed the current expectation of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, which is expected to be upon 12-170,000 tons, may exceed 200,000 tons. For effective recycling means, garbage is just the resources of the wrong position. But two-handed electric vehicle production company and dynamic lithium-ion battery production company, these garbage is afraid more like a bomb on time.

If there is no "favorable map" recycling industry in 4 years, the waste battery will be flooded like a tide. Why is these companies first rush? Recently, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Recycling and Utilization of Electric Automotive Battery Battery (hereinafter referred to as "Policy") first clarified the responsible subject, the logic of governance pollution is the same: Who is responsible, who is responsible, who pollutes who? Governance. The rule of the game suggests that at least at this stage, from the government level, there has been no longer chartable business, but has to specify the trouble of responsibility.

"Policy" provides regulations on the collection, classification, storage, transportation, step utilization, regeneration, supervision and management of waste dynamic lithium-ion batteries. It looks like a complete, the fact that only one thing: the responsible subject and the way of vital, that is, the traceability system is established. Battery and electric vehicle vehicle manufacturers will see the same waste batteries as the same as the same source of water.

It is like they have been sold out today - of course, not the same, that is, then They will become hot salad. However, the market cannot be established by administrative orders and punishment mechanisms. The deficiency in the "policy" is essential to the company: how to get.

The relevant experience of the Japanese enterprises is available until today, Japan has no special regulations for the power lithium-ion battery. However, Japanese environmental protection regulations ("Resource Effective Usage". The law itself cannot solve technical problems.

The Japanese enterprise started in the new energy vehicle area than we have been in early 10 years, Toyota's Prius was born in 1997. According to the Japanese, it is extremely attached importance to garbage recovery (the national waste treatment rate of 100%), and Japan should establish a dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling industry chain within 5 years in the birth of the new energy vehicle, but actually not. Even if there is a Toyota, recover the nickel-hydrogen battery (the power lithium-ion battery for mixing vehicles), which is the same in the unprofitable dilemma.

This is until 2011, the reason for the reserved nickel-hydrogen battery in 2011. Cooperate in local, Toyota and Summit metal, with the latter world-class high-purity extraction technology, Toyota realizes multiple utilization of nickel in a hybrid vehicle dynamic lithium-ion battery, which can recover 50% nickel in the battery pack; At the same time, Toyota Chemical Engineering and Sumitom Metal Mine is equipped with a special production line that can be used in the amount of 10,000 hybrid vehicle batteries. In 2012, Honda cooperated with Japan 's re-chemical industrial companies.

However, Honda recycling projects can recover more than 80% of rare earth metals for making new NiMH batteries. A few years ago, nickel recovered in a hybrid vehicle battery can only be used to produce stainless steel. With the development of high-precision nickel extraction and separation technology, now recovered nickel can be used to produce new batteries.

Toyota has promoted nickel recycling technology to overseas factory. Recycling battery is responsible. However, the Japanese companies also rely on recycling metal (including extremely valuable rare earth elements for Japan), as a driving force for recycling industry.

In Europe, Toyota shows a more active attitude, which is related to Europe's more demanding environmental regulations. Toyota announced last year that 100% of the mixed car battery was achieved, with 91% recovery rate. Toyota also extended SNAM (France), the UMICORE Group (Belgium) partnership, and the latter is recovered from the latter.

And Toyota (including Lexus) has sold 850,000 mixed cars in Europe, which has been sold in Europe. At the same time, in order to extend the life of the power lithium-ion battery, the production limit of processing peak is prevented. Toyota also promotes the dynamic lithium-ion battery ladder.

Last year, Toyota will use the Waste Battery of Camry Mixed Power Cars for Bank of Huangshi National Park. Nissan also cooperates with Sumitomo to develop battery systems using electric vehicle hearing, as a secondary energy storage system for solar power, for independent power supply in the night and light inadequate. Sumitomo business and Nissan joint venture established 4Renergy company, with the commercial reuse of electric car EV waste lithium-ion batteries, its company has established five years, has become commercially successful lithium-ion battery recycling company.

The relevant experience of the establishment of the recycling industry chain in the world has shown that even if the policy is announced, although the whole society is aware that the battery recycling industry is imminent, in 2020, we successfully do it is also a small probability event. Unless we can introduce Japanese companies (provided that the other party is willing to share). .

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