Author ：Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier
As the world turns to electric vehicles to reduce climate change, quantify future demand for key battery materials is critical. In a new report, CHENGJIANXU, Bernhardsteubing and a research team in the Netherlands Leiden University and the US Agong National Laboratory show the demand for lithium, nickel, cobalt and manganese oxides in 2020 to 2050. Will increase multiple factors.
Therefore, the supply chain demand for lithium, cobalt and nickel expands, and may need to explore more resources. However, relative to the development of the electric fleet and the battery capacity of each car, the uncertainty is very large. Prior to 2050, closed-loop recycling played a secondary but increasingly important role in reducing raw material demand, and researchers must study advanced recycling strategies, and economically recycle battery-level materials from scrapped cells.
This work is now published in "Natural Communication Materials". The development of electric vehicles is smaller than the impact of electric vehicles (EV) on the climate compared to vehicles with internal combustion engines. This advantage leads to a significant increase in demand, and the global fleet grows from thousands of thousands of ships to 7.
5 million ships in 2019. However, the global average automotive market is still limited, and future growth is expected to make the absolute increase in the past. Lithium-ion battery (libs) is the mainstream technology of electric vehicles, typical automotive lithium-ion batteries are contained in lithium, cobalt and nickel, and the anode contains graphite, and other components contain aluminum and copper.
Battery technology is currently moving towards new and improved chemical direction. In this work, XU et al. Studied the material demand of the global light electric motor vehicle battery, from lithium, nickel, cobalt to graphite and silicon, and link material demand with sustained production capacity and known reserves to discuss improved batteries.
Key factor. This work will assist the electric vehicle transition by providing insights on future battery materials and key factors that drive battery material demand. Global electric vehicle stock development forecast 2050.
Pure electric car, plug-in hybrid electric car, STEP program, national policy scenario, sustainable development scenario. Electric Automobile (EV) team increased the growth of electric car fleets based on the two cases of the International Energy (IEA) until 2030. These include established policies associated with existing government policies and sustainable development (SD) scenarios consistent with the "Paris Agreement" climate target, that is, 2030 electric vehicles, global sales reached 30%.
In this analysis, XU et al. Extend these scenarios to 2050. To meet the STEP solution, by 2050, about 6TWH battery capacity is required annually.
The material requirements will depend on the choice of battery chemical reagents, and three battery chemical reagents are currently being considered. The most likely situation will follow current lithium nickel-cobalt aluminum (NCA) and lithium nickel-cobalt manganese (NCM) batteries (hereinafter referred to as NCX, where x represents aluminum or manganese). By 2030, this will lead to the development of battery chemistry.
As a lithium ion battery positive electrode material is expected to get more and more applications in future electric vehicles. Although it will affect the fuel economy and endless mileage of electric vehicles than energy, LFPs has the advantages of low production cost, good thermal stability and long life. Although the LFP battery is currently useful in commercial vehicles such as bus, there is also a broad application in light electric vehicles including Teslas.
In the STEP program, the battery market share and the electric car battery year before 2050. (A) NCX scene. (B) LFP scene.
(C) Li-S / aerial scene. LFP lithium iron phosphate battery, NCM lithium nickel-watenganese battery, NCM111, NCM 523, NCM622, NCM811, NCM 955 represent ratios of nickel, cobalt, manganese. NCA lithium nickel-cobalt aluminum battery, graphite (Si) graphite anode contains partial silicon, lithium sulfide battery, lithium air battery, TWH109KWH.
Since the battery material needs and recovery, scientists have assessing the demand for electric vehicles (EV) batteries, and pointed out that growth of lithium is only slightly affected by battery-specific chemical components, and nickel and cobalt-specific battery chemical components More influence on their needs. From 2020 to 2050, the demand for lithium-ion batteries further increases. In this way, they predicted that the accumulated demand for lithium from 2020 to 2050 was between 7.
3 million tons and 18.3 million tons, cobalt's accumulated demand was 3.5 million tons to 1.
88 million tons, and nickel accumulated demand was 181 million. Tonnest to 889 million tons. Xu et al.
Next to the materials that change over time in the waste battery and discusses how to recycle these materials help to reduce the production of primary materials. Existing electric car battery commercial recycling method has two kinds of dry and wet method. Fire method includes melting the entire battery or pre-treated battery pack.
Wet metallurgy is based on acid immersion and then recovered battery material by solvent extraction and precipitation method. In closed loop circulation, wet metallurgical treatment can be performed after the fire method is treated, and the alloy is converted into a metal salt. The purpose of the direct recovery method is to recover the cathode material while maintaining its chemical structure to obtain economic and environmental advantages, but this approach is still in the early stage of development.
In NCX, LFP and Li-S / Air Battery Solutions, lithium, nickel and cobalt battery materials flow from 2020 to 2050. (A) Raw material demand. (B) Waste battery materials.
STEP Scenario - Ordinary Policy Scenario, Sustainable Development Scenario, Million Tons Sustainable Development Scenario. Electric Automotive Outlook has developed models in this way, Xu Chengjian, Bernhad Steve and his colleagues developed to showcase how lithium, nickel and cobalt battery capacity will grow significantly, because even before 2025, electric cars Demand growth can also exceed current production speed. Battery materials can be supplied without exceeding existing production capacity, but must be increased to meet the needs of other departments.
Overview of supply risks may change with the discovery of new reserves. The demand for battery capacity will depend on technical factors, such as vehicle design, weight and fuel efficiency, as well as the size of the fleet scale and consumer to the size and range of electric vehicles. Direct recovery is the most economical and environmentally friendly closed-circuit loop method, because it can recover cathode materials without smelting and leaching.
The success transition to the electric car will depend on whether it can keep up with the continuous material supply of the industry. Scientific sustainability assessment, including the life cycle assessment of chemical substances, will guide the choice of battery chemicals and raw materials. The global demand expected global demand is also a platform for monitoring the global economic environment and social impact of electric vehicles and their batteries.
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