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What is power wall?

April 24, 2023

What is power wall?

Power wall is a stationary home energy storage product equipped with rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Generally the power wall stores electricity for solar self-consumption, time of use load shifting, and backup power, which is able to charge the whole family, including TV, air conditioner, lights, etc and mainly intended for domestic usage. It usually comes in different shapes sizes, colors, nominal capacity and so on, with the aim to provide homeowners with a reliable source of clean energy and help reduce their reliance on the grid.


The structure of power wall

The main part of the power wall is composed of Lithium-ion battery cells, BMS, inverter and communication protocol, all of them work together to ensure the normal functioning of the power wall. Generally in the morning the solar begins to power home, so that the excess solar will be used to charge the power wall. After that, the power wall can run the home at night and usually power wall will usually maintain 30% storage to ensure enough energy for power outages.



What is Lithium-ion battery cells?

As the heart of power wall, the lithium-ion battery cells are specially designed for high-performance energy storage applications. The high-energy density of the lithium-ion battery cells also enables the power wall to provide a high storage capacity in a small form factor. Moreover, to ensure the safety and longevity of power wall, the lithium-ion battery cells are managed through a sophisticated battery management system to monitor the performance of each individual cell and ensure that the cells are charged and discharged within safe limits.



What is BMS?

The BMS (Battery Management System) of the power wall is designed to monitor and control the state of the battery, including cell-level monitoring, charge and discharge control, SOC estimation as well as Communication and control interface, which further help extend the lifespan of the battery.



What is inverter?

Inverter functions to convert DC electricity from the battery into AC electricity that can be used to power a home's electrical loads. It is also used to manage the flow of electricity and maximize energy usage, which further make sure that the electricity can be distributed to power home's electrical loads.



What is communication protocol?

The communication protocol is composed of Modbus RTU,Modbus TCP,CAN bus and Wi-Fi.Though Modbus RTU, power wall communicate with other devices by a serial connection. While Modbus TCP protocol is used to communicate with devices through Ethernet. As for the CAN bus, it is a multi-master bus protocol that allows devices to communicate with one another. By using these communication protocols, the power wall can exchange real-time data with other devices in an energy system, which is helpful to energy optimization and management.



The development history of power wall

The first generation power wall was introduced in 2015, with a storage capacity of 6.4Kwh for daily cycle use (solar self-consumption, time of use load shifting). At this time power wall was DC coupling and can work better together with solar systems. And then in 2016, power wall was upgraded with a 13.5 kWh capacity and was capable of delivering 5 kW of power continuously and up to 7 kW of peak power in short bursts (up to 10 seconds), and at this time the device was AC coupling paired with a device called the Backup Gateway, which acted as a transfer switch and a load center. After that, the power wall has developed rapidly, which could deliver higher amounts of power, and that the functionality would be enabled via an over-the-air software update, which can further simplify installation and allows for even greater power delivery during periods of full sun.


Throughout its history, we can see power wall will be more affordable and efficient in the further, as well as compatible with a wider range of energy sources.



The types of power wall

Generally speaking, power wall can be divided into two types based on whether they are independent of the national -- grid-connected power wall and off-grid power wall.



l Grid-connected power wall

As a a type of battery storage system, grid-connected power wall is connected to the electrical grid, which can be charged from the grid or renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power so as to be used during peak energy consumption hours. The grid-connected power wall can not only help reduce grid burden , lower energy costs and increase energy independence, but also provide backup power during power outages. Therefore, grid-connected power walls have seen a immense amount of interest in people who want to store excess solar energy, increase self-consumption and become more energy independent.


l Off-grid power wall

Contrary to grid-connected power wall, off-grid power wall is a type of battery storage system that is not connected to the electrical grid.The energy of the power wall generated during the day can be used around the clock, which can optimize the use of electricity and guarantee continuity in case of temporary disruptions in the power supply. Therefore, it has become more and more popular as the transition to renewable energy accelerates. And according to data released by Orient Securities, the demand of hybrid inverters for incremental markets and off-grid inverters has continued to grow, especially at U.S. South Africa and other places with high levels of sunshine.



The applications of power wall

AS a home battery storage system designed to store energy, power wall is primarily used in residential settings, but can also be used in public places.


l Residential settings

The Power wall is designed for use in residential settings because it is a compact, cost-effective, and efficient energy storage solution for home owners. Firstly, power wall allows customers to save on costs and avoid the risk of power outages. And thanks to power wall, customers are not reliant on a utility for energy needs, and are therefore protected from price spikes, supply fluctuations and blackouts. And since the power wall products mainly store from a source of clean, renewable energy:sun, which is helpful to reduce carbon emissions. Additionally, the power wall is aesthetically pleasing and is designed to blend in with home design, making it a popular choice for residential applications.


l Public places

Public places are areas that are designed for leisure activities and are open to all members of the community, offering a range of amenities and services, which requires effective management of public places to ensure their long-term sustainability and functionality. Therefore, the use of sustainable technologies such as power wall can help reduce the environmental impact of public places and provide a reliable source of energy for essential services. In the event of power outages, the power wall can provide backup power to essential services in public areas such as lighting, communication systems, and medical equipment. What’s more, it can be easily installed in public areas, providing a convenient and easily accessible source of energy for members of the community.



The development trends of power wall

As a major producer of gas, Russian announced to suspend the supply of gas to Europe, which has threatened the energy supplies in the European. Consequently, the demands of power wall has seen a positive development prospect. In order to ensure energy security, many countries have accelerated the pace of energy transformation. More importantly, over the past few years, the interest in energy storage solutions has increased due to the need for more reliable energy supply. Power walls, which are essentially large batteries that store electricity for later use, have emerged as a popular solution for both residential and commercial applications.


Advanced monitoring and management systems allow users to monitor their energy usage, optimize the charging and discharging of the battery, and even sell unused energy back to their electricity provider. And as production scales up and technology improves, the cost of power walls is expected to decrease, making them a feasible option for more people. For example, according to BNEF, the home energy storage installed capacity of Europe has reached 639MW/1179MWh and the home energy storage installed capacity of U.S. has reached 154MW/431MWh by the end of 2020. So it is predicted that the global home energy storage installed capacity will reached 25.45GW/58.26GWh and installed energy CAGR 58% during 2021-2025.


Undoubtedly with the development of technologies, the storage capacity of power wall will be increased and the energy management will also be enhanced. Power wall can also be developed to work seamlessly with smart home systems, which enables homeowners to monitor and control energy consumption remotely.The increasing safety awareness of people also requires power wall to be developed with more advanced safety features to ensure that the battery systems are safe for use in homes and businesses.



The industry barriers of power wall

Even though the power wall will keep a positive outlook for the upcoming years, it still face a lot of challenges. The high initial investment can be a significant obstacle for homeowners or businesses, particularly in low-income or developing countries. And power wall requires a certain level of technical expertise to install and operate efficiently, which is also a challenge for buyers. For the manufactures, the characteristics of the power wall means higher investments in R&D and stronger technical reserves, which will also result in industry barriers .



The investment advice on power wall

With the popularity of power wall, batteries and PCS will benefit a lot from it. For example, according to ORIENT SECURITY, the battery incremental market space will reach nearly 11.4 billion USD while the PCS incremental market space will reach nearly 3.04 billion USD, so it is a good chance for investment. However, please keep in mind that market is volatile and invest with cautions. For example, the risk that the expansion rate of market is lower than predicted and the risk of the rising raw material prices. Additionally, it is important to note that the investment in power wall depends on the electricity rates in different areas, and the amount of savings will depend on the size of the system, the energy usage patterns and other factors.



General Knowledge on power wall

l For Security: In general, power wall comes with multiple safety features to protect users, including thermal runaway protection, short-circuit protection, over-current protection and over-voltage protection. Additionally, it is designed to shut off automatically in the event of an emergency or power outage to ensure the safety of the user.


l For technology: For most power wall, it need to use proprietary technology for packaging and cooling the cells in packs with liquid coolant, while at the same time BMS, Lithium-ion battery cells, inverter and communication protocol are also included.


l For preservation methods: Generally, the power wall is expected to be used for ten years. However, there are some tips you can do to help extend the life of your power wall: firstly, power wall batteries are designed to operate within a temperature range of -20°C to 50°C (-4°F to 122°F), so remember to avoid excessive heat of the power wall. The regular checking of the battery performance will help you identify any issues or anomalies. Last but not least, don’t forget to regularly monitor and maintain solar panels if your power wall is connected to solar panels.


l For buying: Before buying a power wall, it's important to make sense of your energy needs,which will help you choose the right size and number of batteries to meet your household energy requirements.Chose one that can support larger loads, so that you can power up more of what you need, and power wall will go further if power small, highly efficient home appliances. Be careful that if you already have a solar panel system installed, be sure to choose a power wall that is compatible with your existing setup. Finally, a vendor that offers a competitive price, good warranty, and outstanding customer service is also very important.



In a world, power wall is facing an unprecedented market opportunity, the ability to increase the impacts of uncontrollable factors and saving money has drove the growth of them. So a comprehensive understanding of it show a great significance, sincerely hope that this article will be helpful for you!


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