Author ：Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier
We are talking about 43GW of photovoltaic accumulated installed in my country, is it a problem of recycling of photovoltaic components? If a 250W photovoltaic component is estimated, the 1GW scrap assembly can reach 76,000 tons, and 43GW of the net will be 3.27 million tons of electronic garbage. If it is not properly resolved, it will bring huge pollution to the environment.
1. Most of the material of the photovoltaic module recovered by the photovoltaic module is a recyclable material, except for aluminum and glass, there is a rare metal such as silver, indium, gallium. Although these rare metals account for 1% of the weight of the components, the recycling value is large.
Recovery of photovoltaic components to achieve cycle reuse, saving resources, reducing energy consumption on native resources and reducing resource refining, thereby reducing ecological environmental impact and destruction. Therefore, the recovery and harmless solvement of photovoltaic components is the current international and domestic industry and environmental concerns. At the beginning of 2014, the revision of the Scrap Electrical Equipment (WEEE) Directive is fully effective in the EU.
The first time the photovoltaic module is incorporated into the direction of the instruction, and the scrapped photovoltaic components and household appliances are required to force recycling as a class of products. In October 2014, at the IECTC82WG2 meeting, a part of the WG2 member also recommended the discussion of "The Recycling and Environmental Safety Assessment of Photovoltaic Components" as a new working group project proposal (NWIP), and setup recycling and environmental safety assessment in the future. IEC standard.
At present, Europe has already launched the provisions of enforcing photovoltaic components from standard regulatory levels. The EU Parliament has officially revisited the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) regulations. According to the amendments, the practical photovoltaic components are not aggregated to collect more than 85%, and the recycling is more than 80%.
In my country, with the rapid development of the photovoltaic industry in recent years, the technical and policy system recycling of photovoltaic components has gradually been concerned, low energy consumption, low pollution, and economically vibrant photovoltaic components have begun to study exploration. 2 Around, the aluminum border accounts for about 18%, and the semiconductor material accounts for 4%. In this regard, most of the weight of a solar component comes from a recyclable material.
In addition, the study also pointed out that although rare metals such as silver, indium, gallium contained in the solar modules only account for 1 to 2% of the total mass of components, but still have recovery value. 3. Measures for recycling of photovoltaic components When reclaiming waste photovoltaic components, the components should be split, remove aluminum borders, glass, and junction boxes to obtain silicon wafers.
Effective complete silicon wafer recovery method has inorganic acid dissolution and thermal solution. Among them, the latter is divided into fixed container thermal solution and fluidized bed reactor heat solution. 1) Inorganic acid dissolution method with nitric acid and peroxide mixed acid, under a certain temperature condition, after a period of time, subdue EVA, classified with glass.
This method can keep the wafer of the wafer, but further resolve the silicon wafer. 2) Fixing the container thermal solution to place the photovoltaic assembly into the incinerator, set the reaction temperature of 600 ° C for incineration. After the burning is completed, handle the battery, glass and border and other.
Recycled various materials into the corresponding recovery procedures, plastic materials are completely incinerated. 3) Fluidized bed reactor heat solution uses fluidized bed reactor to heat the waste photovoltaic assembly. Put fine sand into the fluidized bed reactor, under a certain temperature, the air of the flow rate, the fine sand is in a hot flow state, which has the physical properties of liquid.
Put the components into the fluidized bed, the EVA and backplane materials are gasified in the reactor, and the exhaust gas enters the secondary combustion chamber from the reactor, as the heat source of the reactor. About the thickness of more than 400 μm or more, you can recover intact wafers. Due to the continuous development of manufacturing technology, the battery is thinned, and the thermal solution method has not been able to obtain a good wafer, so it can only be applied to recovery silicon materials.
In addition to the above three ways, there is an organic acid dissolution method and a physical separation method 4) Solve EVA in an organic acid dissolution method to achieve the purpose of separating the battery, EVA, glass, and backplane. The method takes longer, Jiemo is a reaction cycle for 7 days. In addition, the EVA expansion, the battery is broken and there is an organic waste liquid to solve the problem, so the method is still in the research phase of the laboratory.
5) The physical separation method first removes the assembly aluminum edge and the junction box, then pulverized the wireless assembly, separating the tin soldering tape and the glass particles, the remaining portion is then grinded, and the electrostatic separation method is obtained by moisture, silicon powder, back plate Particles and EVA particles. The method finally obtained a mixture of different materials and failed to achieve sufficient separation of a single component, still in the research phase of the laboratory. The advantages and disadvantages of various ways combine technical methods and related experiences at home and abroad and related experience: inorganic acid and organic acid dissolution: Only for EVA removal and separation, the removal of the border and the silicon wafer reuse, And the rest of the waste liquid is also difficult to resolve.
Physical separation method: Not perfect, failing to separate individual components. It can take a variety of solutions to combine, and take a long additional short, explore suitable photovoltaic module solutions. 4 Waste collection and solving the fluorine-containing backplane even if the photovoltaic assembly is recovered, it gives people a problem.
The fluorocarbon is unusually sturdy chemical structure, and the usual buried solution can not be degraded even in the millennium; and the toxicity of fluoride is very poisonous. I have heard of the case after the photovoltaic power plant is fired, and the rescuers are born with fluoride poisoning. The current PET film backplane or can be handled by the current rise.
2. Economic Benefits: The economic benefit of the recycling component is low. The market is not high in photovoltaic components.
Due to the high recovery cost of photovoltaic components, the equipment purchase and maintenance of recycling components is another cost. The income of the photovoltaic module is low, and to achieve the target of scale recycling of the waste photovoltaic components, there is still a long way to go. 3.
Policies and regulations: Policies and regulations in China in the recycling of photovoltaic components or the lashing solution of photovoltaic components are still blanquil current international and domestic photovoltaic components have a variety of possible technical routes, but due to the recycling of domestic photovoltaic components at this stage. Small scale, no corresponding industrial chain. Therefore, in terms of policies and regulations, there should be relevant policies to communicate and request, fill this part of the blank.
6. The prospect of the recovery of photovoltaic components is currently the attention of the recycling of waste photovoltaic components continues to rise, but it is very difficult to achieve a good effect in a short time. Within international, the influence of the PVCYCLE Association is more prominent.
The PVCYCLE Association was established in July 2007, headquartered in Brussels, is a association dedicated to the use of European PVS. The association can recover all of the photovoltaic technology (crystal silicon and amorphous silicon) components today, and the recycling and recycling of the official member organization. PVCYCLE Association is expected to recover the total value of $ 12 billion by 2035.
The recycling of photovoltaic components can not only create more employment opportunities, but also reduce the impact of the solar photovoltaic industry on the overall environment. In our country, it has also carried out related work, such as the National 863 Task Task Photovoltaic Equipment Recycling and Harmaceous Solution Technology. With the total amount of photovoltaic installations in my country, the large-scale scrapped scrap in my country's photovoltaic components is not necessarily prevented from the future, so it will be unpredictable, high efficiency, low energy consumption, low-cost photovoltaic components can be prepared, and the implementation can continue developing.
At present, 80 Chinese mainland companies and 11 Taiwanese companies in my country, China, China, China, China, China, China, China. .
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