Research on Related Problems of Recycling Recovery of Power Lithium Battery


  Author :Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier

The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology shows that 674,000 units of new energy vehicles have been produced in the first half of 2009-2016. Under the guidance and promotion of national policies, my country's new energy automotive industry has developed rapidly. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology shows that 674,000 units of new energy vehicles have been produced in the first half of 2009-2016.

The "Energy Saving and New Energy Automotive Industry Development Plan" (2012-2020) ". my country's automobile technology research center predicts that before and after 2020, my country's pure electric (including plug-in) passenger car and hybrid passenger vehicle power lithium-ion battery will reach 12-17 million tons. The scraps of the vehicle power lithium-ion battery are gradually formed, how to dispose of retired dynamic lithium-ion batteries will be a major topic affecting new energy vehicles.

Keywords: dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling development status (1) multi-country formulation of relevant regulations and establish an important guarantee for the development of developed countries as the law as a prevention and treatment of battery pollution and realization of recycling. Through the establishment of a sound and improved legal mechanism, fully implement the "Extension Producer Responsibility" system, use legal enforcement to regulate the various links, constrain the entire battery lifecycle, so that it must be responsible and fulfilled in accordance with the law, And severe punishment for the subjects of violations of law. The United States has always attached great importance to environmental management, and proposes technical specifications for the production, collection, transportation and storage of waste batteries, and takes a production person's responsibility to extend and deposit systems.

Legislation. In response to waste battery legislation involves three levels of federal, state and local, among which "Resource Protection and Regeneration Law", "Clean Air Law", "Cleaning Water Law" from federal regulations, using license management methods, and strengthen battery production companies Supervision of recycling companies with waste battery resources. "Mercury Battery and Charging Battery Management Law" is important for the production, collection, transportation, storage of waste secondary batteries to corresponding technical specifications, and it is clear that the logo regulations conducive to the later recovery utilization.

New York and California Product Management Act covers the lithium ion battery products, requiring manufacturers to develop battles and recycling programs without sacrificing consumers and retailers. In terms of recycling, the US International Battery Association has developed a deposit system to promote consumers to actively pay the old battery products. At the same time, the US government pushes the establishment of battery recycling network.

It takes additional ambient fees to charge a certain amount of handling fee and battery manufacturer to pay a part of the recovery fee. At the same time, the waste battery recycling company sells the raw materials of the protocol to the battery production company. This model can make battery production companies to fulfill the relevant responsibility obligations, and ensure the profits of the waste battery recycling company to a certain extent.

Producer responsibility extension system. The EU EU adopts the manufacturer's enforcement system to the recovery fee, and put forward the battery users. Since 1990, Europe's cars have begun to emphasize the reuse of materials and zero components in automobiles.

In 2000, the EU passed the 2000/53 / EC "technical directive for abandoned cars" (ie ELV Directive), the goal is to establish a mechanism for collecting, processing, reuse, encouraging the use of waste vehicles to re-use, reducing automotive products to the environment Destruction, and is committed to environmental protection, resource protection, and energy savings. The EU 2006/66 / EC battery directive is directly related to battery recycling, which involves all kinds of batteries, and requires automotive battery manufacturers to establish a car waste battery recycling system. The EU has entered the waste battery since 2008, and the recovery fee is burden by the manufacturer.

Take a more mature Germany with a recycled field. Germany has established a relatively complete recycling legal system, according to the provisions of the EU and Germany's recycling regulations: in Germany, battery production and importers must register in government; dealers should organize the retracting mechanism, and cooperate with the production company to introduce consumers Can recycle the battery for free; the end user is obliged to give the waste battery to the designated recycling organization. Japan's Japan has been in the forefront of the recycling waste battery, has established a "battery production - sales-recycling-regenerative treatment" recycling system.

The relevant laws and regulations can be divided into three levels: the first layer refers to the basic law, that is, "promoting the establishment of a cycle of cycle-based society"; the second layer refers to the comprehensive law, including "solid waste management and public cleaning law", "resources effective use Promotion Law, "Energy Saving Law", "Renewable Resource Law", etc. The third layer refers to the special law level, including specialized regulations based on the nature system of various products. Since October 1994, Japanese battery manufacturers have begun to use the battery-recovery plan to establish "battery production - sales-recycling-regeneration treatment" battery recycling system.

This recycling system is based on the voluntary efforts of each manufacturer, retail merchants, automotive vendors and gas stations are free from consumers to recycle used batteries. Battery follows the opposite direction of its distribution route, decompose by the recycling company. my country's dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling system is constantly improving, and it has clarified the main body of the dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery responsibility.

The cities have also actively explored battery recycling policies, but the gap in implementation is far away. In 2012, the State Council clearly stated in "Energy Saving and New Energy Automotive Industry Development Plan (2012-2020)", to strengthen power lithium-ion battery step utilization and recycling management. Developed a dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling management method, establish a dynamic lithium-ion battery step utilization and recycling management system, clarify the responsibilities, rights and obligations of the relevant parties.

In July 2014, the "General Office of the State Council on accelerating the promotion of new energy vehicles" proposes to study the development of dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling policies, explore the use of funds, deposits, mandatory recycling, etc. to promote the recycling of waste power lithium-ion batteries, Establish and improve the recycling system of waste dynamic lithium-ion battery. Since 2016, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has successively introduced "Electric Vehicle Power Battery Recycling Technology Policy (2015 Edition)", "New Energy Automobile Waste Battery Comprehensive Utilization Conditions" and "New Energy Automobile Waste Battery Comprehensive Utilization Industry Standard Notice Management Interim Measures "3 files, clarify the main body of waste battery recycling responsibility, strengthen industry management and recycling supervision.

In order to encourage production companies to recycle power lithium-ion batteries, many local governments are actively exploring. In 2014, Shanghai announced "Shanghai Encourage Purchase and Using New Energy Automobile Interim Measures", requiring car companies to recover the dynamic lithium-ion battery, the government gives 1,000 yuan / set reward. In 2015, Shenzhen announced the "Shenzhen Municipal People's Government's Notice on Printing and Distributing the Shenzhen New Energy Automobile Promotion Application Several Policy Measures", the content display requires the development of dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling policies, which is responsible for new energy vehicle power lithium-ion batteries Forced recycling, and by the vehicle manufacturing company, according to 20 yuan per kilowatt 20 yuan special account, local fiscal is given no more than 50% subsidies according to the audited account amount, and establishing a sound relief Ion battery recycle system.

But in fact, since my country's new energy vehicles have only begun in 2014, most of the dynamic lithium-ion batteries are still within the warranty period, although consumers have doubts, but vehicles include battery companies have not implemented them. (2) Although countries pay attention to power lithium-ion batteries and conduct project demonstration power lithium-ion battery recycling, although there is a government department, scientific research institutions, some companies' attention and research, the development potential is huge, but there is no large resource investment. The United States, Japan, Europe and my country have different attempts in the recovery of retired batteries.

Table 1 is a model project, which is a typical power lithium-ion battery at home and abroad, involves energy storage, mobile power, distributed power generation, commercial feasibility study and dismantling, recycling. Table 1 Dynamic Lithium Ion Battery Recycling Recovery Demonstration Project Overview (3) The general process of reuse of the process level to improve the power lithium-ion battery in China is generally dismantling, detection, screening, and then two Secondary restructuring. The recovery process of the waste lithiature ion battery is: first completely discharge, then dismantle the battery to separate the positive electrode, negative electrode, electrolyte, and diaphragm, etc.

, then the electrode material is leached, acid immersion, additional addition Extraction to achieve the enrichment of viable metals. Recycling method can be divided into three categories according to the extraction process: dry recycling technology, wet recovery technology and biological recovery technology. my country has basically mastered the corresponding recovery technology, but the level of recovery process is low.

On the one hand, the recovery process route for the power lithium-ion battery is still in the exploration stage, and the recycling technology of circulating manufacturing is not carried out. On the other hand, domestic on dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery treatment has generally stayed in the stage of waste treatment, and the study of resource recovery and recycling technology of lithium-ion batteries has not been carried out, and the safety involved in lithium-ion battery recovery There is no specific process measures and equipment guarantees such as production and environmental protection. (4) Power lithium-ion battery recovery facilitating environmental protection and resource saving vehicles, if necessary, if there is no necessary treatment, it will cause environmental pollution and resource waste.

Most of my country's car power lithium-ion battery is a lithium-ion battery. Although the lithium-ion battery does not contain a large weight metal element such as mercury, cadmium, lead, but the waste lithium-ion battery can cause greatness to the environment. Pollution.

For example, the electrode material of the waste lithium ion battery enters the environment, can be hydrolyzed, decomposed, oxidized in other substances in the environment, and heavy metal ions, strong bases, and negative electrode carbon dust, resulting in heavy metal pollution, alkali pollution and dust pollution; In the electrolyte enters the environment, hydrolysis, decomposition, combustion and other chemical reactions can occur, there is HF, arsenic compound and phosphorus-containing compound, resulting in fluorofluid and arsenic pollution. Studies have shown that recycling lithium-ion batteries can save 51.3% of natural resources, including reduced 45.

3% ore consumption and 57.2% fossil energy consumption. In lithium ion battery materials, contain some valuable materials.

Taking a three-dimensional material battery as an example, the nickel content is 12%, cobalt by 5%, manganese, lithium 1.2%, if the valuable material is recovered, and the valuable material will be reused, and the purpose of saving resources. (5) Dynamic lithium-ion battery reuses the value of the battery life cycle using the value from the new energy vehicle, still keeps 70% -80% initial energy, if directly disassembles recovery, is the remaining use of the battery Waste, the power lithium-ion battery is scrapped in addition to chemical activity decreased, the chemical composition of the battery does not change, and the energy of these batteries can continue to meet family energy storage, distributed power generation, microcontrol, mobile power supply, backup power supply, emergency Small and medium-sized energy storage equipment and large commercial energy storage and grid storage markets such as power supply, if used in waste dynamic lithium-ion batteries, economic costs decline, in the field of ladder, dynamic lithium ion battery full life cycle use value Will get fully utilization.

Key words: important problems in the recovery and reuse of dynamic lithium ion batteries (1) High complexity of retired batteries, unintended decommissioning dynamic lithium ion batteries, including complexity of different types of battery manufacturing and design processes, String parallel into group form, service and use time, diversity of models and use conditions. For example, the battery has a square, a cylindrical different type, its laminated, winding form is also different, due to the different forms of integration, the battery pack is also different. These complexities lead to extreme inconvenience when battery recovery or dismantling.

If automated dismantling, the flexible configuration of the production line is relatively high, resulting in excessive disposal costs. Therefore, in the case where the current automation level is not high, most steps are artificial, and the skill level of the worker may affect the finished product rate during the battery recovery. In the process of manual disassembly, the battery is short-circuited, and the leakage can lead to fire.

Or explod, there is a potential safety hazard for personal and property. (2) The retired battery is poor, and the reuse of non-high quality retired batteries must pass quality testing, including safety assessment, cycle life test, etc. However, if the power lithium ion battery does not have a complete data record during service, the re-use process performs battery life prediction, accuracy may decline, the consistency of the battery cannot be guaranteed, and the test equipment, test fees, test time, analysis modeling Waiting for a new increase.

Due to the internal resistance, electrochemical characteristics, thermal characteristics of different batteries, the inconsistency and reliability of the battery may not be guaranteed, if some problems have not been verified during the screening process, and they will be used again, will be new Increase security risks for the entire battery system. (3) The recycling cost is high, the economy is poor, and the dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling industry has not yet formed a scale effect. It has not established a mature recycling system.

Although some companies involve dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling business, but The less efficiency is low, put into the battery value, lacks profit points. For example, a company with mechanical law and wet recovery waste phosphate ion battery, recovery treatment of 1 ton of waste phosphate dynamic lithium-ion battery is 8540 yuan, while the regeneration material is only 8110 yuan, loss of 430 yuan. Since the row of lithium ion battery recovery technology is more complicated, the recovery process cost is high, and except for the three-yuan positive recovery value, the lithium malamine is manganese acid, and the positive recovery of lithium phosphate is low.

In the field of dynamic lithium-ion battery reuse, due to battery detection and reorganization, the equipment and manual investment cost is high, resulting in high price of battery ex-factory, and is used for energy storage and does not have economical. According to the data of my country's Science Power Research Institute, the electricity cost of the lithium-ion battery energy storage in 2015 is 0.73 yuan / kWh, and the lead charcoal battery, the cost of pumping energy is currently close to 0.

4 yuan / kWh, current lithium-ion battery energy storage Economic cost is not available. (4) Recycling policy lacks supervision, implementing not optimistic about my country, published "Electric Automotive Power Battery Recycling Technology Policy (2015 Edition)" Important responsibility, power battery production company undertakes an important responsibility of the recycling utilization of used power storage battery outside the after-sales service system of electric vehicle production company, and the rail-based use of battery production company to undertake the important responsibility of the recycling of the battery, and scrapped the car recycling dismantling company. Should be responsible for recycling the power battery on the scrapped car.

However, since this policy is not mandatory management and lacks a clear reward and punishment mechanism, plus the low-energy lithium-ion battery recovery is not high, the current power lithium-ion battery related subjects are not optimistic about the implementation of policies. Conclusion and Recommendation With the rapid development of new energy vehicles, my country's powered lithium-ion battery scrap will also be large, and after retiring, if the necessary recycling and processing, it will not only cause waste of resources, but also Environment causes certain pollution. Governments, companies and consumers should actively play the linkage mechanism, promote the development of dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery and re-use industries, reduce the pollution and waste of power lithium-ion batteries, extend the life of the power lithium-ion battery and value chain.

(1) Research the standardization of battery standardization and implement the dynamic lithium-ion battery of the traceability system, affecting the complexity, consistency, safety and economy of disassembly, testing, etc. in the process of recycling and reuse, therefore there is necessary to power Structural design, connection method, process technology, integrated installation of lithium ion batteries. Further implementation "Electric Vehicle Power Battery Recycling Technology Policy (2015 Edition)" required by the dynamic lithium-ion battery coding system and traceability system, formulating the powerful lithium-ion battery encoding forced the dynamic lithium-ion battery, will be traceable and new energy car product notice Manage hooks to ensure that the battery has full lifecycle information record, improve the convenience and accuracy of detection assessment.

(2) Developing and implementing the powerful lithium-ion battery recovery rewards and punishment measures "Electric vehicle power storage battery recycling technology policy (2015 edition)" clarifies the battery recovery responsibility subject and vitality, but recycling the new energy vehicle power lithium-ion battery, currently There have not yet been clearly punished, and the company has not seen the powerful lithium-ion battery recycling is a profitable thing. At present, there is an urgent need to develop a dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery and re-use incentive implementation rules, and establish a clear bountiful mechanism. For example, the necessary penalties for companies that do not fulfill their responsibility obligations in accordance with the recycling policy, including administrative punishment and economic penalties, and even hooks with vehicle notices and battery directorys; can use the company to use the company's number of batteries, capacity, etc.

Subsidy, tax concessions, guarantee the economics of recycling company. For consumers can use deposits and rewards, consumers take the initiative to pay for the old battery, return the deposit and add additional compensation, cultivate consumer dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling. (3) Incrementing the key technology research and development of recycling and re-use to increase key technologies such as waste battery dismantling, restructuring, testing and life prediction, improve the safety of technical maturity and production process; while increasing battery dismantling, Recombination and recycling technology process level and automation level, improve the efficiency of dismantling, recombination and recovery process, making the material and reuse of the material and reuse of the battery factory in the power lithium-ion battery, economic feasibility and safety.

(4) Encourage business model innovation pilots to carry out innovative business model pilots on the basis of technical economic analysis and evaluation, after accumulating relevant experience, copying the circular economy development model with promotion value, preventing ahead. Implementing the construction of the powerful lithium-ion battery recycling system, and use subsidies mechanisms and preferential policies to improve the enthusiasm of companies and consumers, but to prevent some speculative companies from entering the industry to form a fair and benign competition mechanism to facilitate Industrial health development. .

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