Power lithium-ion battery recycled hard core technology!


  Author :Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier

The reason why the power lithium-ion battery is recovered, it is tightly driven by two parts: First, the environmental protection, the second is economic. There are a variety of harmful substances in the battery, which will abandon the impact on ecology. A large number of retired batteries will bring potential threats to the environment, especially heavy metals, electrolytes, solvents, and various types of organic contranes in the dynamic lithium-ion battery.

If they are not properly disposed, it will cause huge harm to soil, water, etc. The repair process is long, the cost is high, so the recycling demand is eager. The substances typically contained in the lithium-ion battery are based on the 2011 version of the United States harmful substance list data, Ni, CO, and phosplastivhets, which are considered to be high-risk substances.

If the waste solution (including landfill, incineration, composting, etc.) is taken, cobalt, nickel, lithium, manganese and other metals and inorganic, organic compounds will cause serious pollution to the atmosphere, water and soil Has great harm. If the material in waste lithium ion batteries enters the ecology, it can cause heavy metal nickel, cobalt contamination (including arsenic), fluorofluid, organic contamination, dust and acid base pollution.

Electrolytes of waste lithium ion batteries and their transformation products such as LiPF6, LiASF6, LiCF3SO3, HF, P2O5, etc., solvents and their analysis and hydrolyzate, such as DME, methanol, formic acid, etc., are toxic and harmful materials, can cause personal injury, even death.

The economic value of the recovery of battery materials is that the material regeneration value and energy value re-excavation. This includes three aspects: 1, after retiring on high-end electrical appliances, still can still meet the needs of some low-end electrical appliances, usually electric toys, energy storage facilities, etc., after recycling, ladder utilization Battery more value, especially for retiring dynamic lithium-ion batteries; 2, even if electrical properties can meet deeper use, the relative rare metals such as Li, CO, Cu, etc.

, are still regenerated; 3, due to part There is a huge difference in metal reduction energy consumption and metal regeneration energy, such as Al, Ni, Fe, which leads to economic value of metal recovery. Different types of lithium-ion batteries contain different kinds of metals and proportions, 1 ton of traditional consumption-based cobalt-containing ion batteries corresponding to about 170 kg of cobalt metal, and in terms of copper, aluminum, lithium, mostly similar. Therefore, the overall recovery value of the lithium-cobalt-lithium-ion battery will be greater than the remaining categories, such as lithium phosphate ion batteries and ternary lithium ion batteries.

The battery is more than 36% in the cost of the power lithium-ion battery cost. In the battery cell, the cost of the positive electrode material rich in nickel-cobalt manganese is 45%. At present, the resource recycling process includes two stages of pre-resolution and subsequent solving.

Precinding the discharge of the waste lithium ion battery in the saline, remove the outer packaging of the battery, remove the metal steel shell to get the battery. The battery is composed of a negative electrode, a positive electrode, a diaphragm, and an electrolyte. The negative electrode adheres to the surface of the copper foil, the positive electrode is attached to the surface of the aluminum foil, the diaphragm is an organic polymer; the electrolyte is attached to the surface of the positive, negative electrode, the organcarbonate solution of LiPF6.

The subsequent solution is recycled for high-value components in various types of waste after dismantling, carrying out battery material reconstruction or repair, technical measures can be divided into three categories: dry recycling technology, wet recovery technology and biological recovery technology. Dry recycling technology refers to a medium that does not pass a solution such as a solution, and a non-recovery technical approach to various types of battery materials or viable metals. It is necessary to include mechanical separation and high temperature heat solution.

Dry thermal repair technology can perform high temperature and thermal repair of crude products obtained by dry recovery, but the output, negative electrode material contains a certain impurity, and performance cannot meet the requirements of new energy vehicle power lithium-ion batteries, mostly for energy storage or small Power lithium-ion battery and other scenes suitable for lithium iron ion battery. Fire mmethurgical, also known as incineration method or dry metallurgy, is the organic binder in the electrode material by high temperature incineration, while the metal and its compound are redox reaction to recover the low boiling medium in condensation. Its compound, the metal in the slag is used to recover, pyrolysis, magnetic alternative or chemical methods, etc.

Fire Metallurgical requires not high components of raw materials, suitable for large-scale solving more complex batteries, but combustion must have some exhaust gas pollution environment, and high temperature solutions are also high, and also new purification recycling equipment Wait, the solution is higher. Wet recovery techniques are metastasis, and transfer metal ions from electrode materials to the leaching medium, and then by ion exchange, precipitation, adsorption, etc. Extraction in the solution, it is necessary to include three methods such as wet metallurgy, chemical extraction and ion exchange.

The wet recovery technology has been more complicated, but the technology has a high recovery rate of lithium, cobalt, nickel, and the obtained metal salt, oxide and other products, high purity can achieve the processing power lithium ion battery material. Quality requirements, suitable for ternary batteries, is also a desired recycling approach to leading recycling companies at home and abroad. Biological recovery techniques are tightly utilized by microbial leaching, converting the useful components of the system into a soluble compound and selectively dissolve, achieving the target component and impurity component separation, ultimately recovering lithium, cobalt, nickel, etc.

At present, the biological recovery technology is not yet mature, such as the cultivation of high-efficiency strains, the culture cycle is too long, and the control of the leaching conditions remains to be treated. Current recovery efficiency is also relatively mature wet recycling process is increasingly become the mainstream technology route of the specialization solution; Greenmei, Bangu Group and other international leading companies, most of the international leading companies, most of which use wet technology. Route as a tight technique for recycling of viable metal resources such as lithium, cobalt, nickel.

Wet techniques are re-produced by the cathode material after the price of metal recovery, and the key performance index of the capacity is better than the positive electrode material obtained after the repair of dry technology. For three-yuan battery, compared to lithium iron phosphate, its battery life is short, and the 80% cycle life of the ternary material battery is only 800-2000 times, and there is a certain risk of safety. It is not suitable for energy storage power stations.

Communication base station reserve power supply, etc. use environment complex ladder utilization. However, since the three-dimensional lithium ion battery is a rare metal such as nickel-cobalt manganese, a material extracted in which lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, copper, aluminum, graphite, diaphragm, and other materials can be achieved by the incentive.

Economic income, with economic feasibility. Take the three-yuan 523 battery as an example, the three-dollar cell nickel, cobalt, manganese and lithium content per ton of cobalt, and the uniform recovery rate of nickel, cobalt and manganese in the market can reach more than 95%. Lithium recovery is about 70%, metal lithium, cobalt, electrolyte nickel and electrolytic manganese market price is 900,000 yuan / ton, 600,000 yuan / ton, 100,000 yuan / ton and 12,000 yuan / ton.

Dynamic lithium ion battery recovery of metal sulfate, cobalt sulfate, manganese sulfate, etc. Taking the processing of nickel sulfate as an example, the cost of solving the cost of nickel per ton is less than 40,000 yuan through the waste power lithium ion battery, and the cost of directing the nickel mine is more than 60,000 yuan. Through resource recovery, the cost of obtaining metal raw materials is lower than the cost from mineral development, and the resource recovery of ternary batteries has the meaning of costing.

Considering that the three-yuan battery recycling company is re-selling with sulfate after dismantling the precious metal, the sales price should be lower than the market price of pure metal form, so it is assumed to sell at a rate of 70%, then the ternary battery. The dismantling revenue is 34,000 yuan / ton, so the scale of only three-yuan battery in 2023 is expected to reach 5,41 billion yuan. In terms of cost fees, the cost of recycling of three-yuan battery is based on processing costs, various fees and taxes.

Among them, the constitution of processing costs is: material cost (waste battery, liquid nitrogen, water, acid base reagent, extractant, precipitant, etc.); fuel and power cost (electrical energy, natural gas, gasoline consumption, etc.) 650 Yuan / ton; environmental governance cost (exhaust gas, wastewater purification, waste residue, ash solution) 550 yuan / ton; equipment cost (equipment maintenance fee, depreciation fee) 500 yuan / ton; labor cost (operation, technology, transport personnel and other salary) 400 yuan / ton.

Distributing management costs and sales staff, packaging, etc. Then the demolition cost of the three-yuan battery is 26,500 yuan / ton. According to the above income, the remember of the decision profit is 7,500 yuan / ton, and the net profit space will exceed 1 billion yuan in 2023.

Through the recovery of raw materials, metal elements such as nickel-cobalt manganese can achieve more than 95% recovery, which is significant. Through resource recovery, nickel, cobalt, manganese and lithium salt can be processed, even further outputting a three-dimensional positive electrode material and a precursor, and the pen is straight for the manufacture of lithium ion battery cells, and has a significant meaning of building a chain closed loop. Lithium phosphate ion battery: The ladder uses a huge potential of 10 billion markets.

For the lithium-phosphate ion battery, the current use of the most widely wet recovered phosphate ion battery is 8,500 yuan / ton. Around, the noble metal regeneration material revenue is only about 8100 yuan, so the demolition loss is about 400 yuan / ton. Therefore, the recovery of lithium iron phosphate ion batteries is not through the disassembly.

The ladder uses the residual value to maximize the circular economy, reducing the construction cost of the energy storage system. The loop system of the ladder utilization is used by the decommissioned dynamic lithium ion battery through the detection, screening, reorganization, etc., which is used for low-speed electric vehicles, backup power supplies, and electric energy storage, etc.

, the battery performance requires a lower category. At present, the tightly category of the ladder is still in the energy storage and peak. The flow rate of the ladder is the first is the screening of retired dynamic lithium-ion batteries.

The power lithium-ion batteries that are shipped after 2014 are expected to be equal to 60% -70%. It is then used in groups, and a set of power lithium ion battery packs that are removed from each electric vehicle as a separate unit, with a medium-small power energy storage inverter, forming a basic energy storage unit, more The basic unit of energy is integrated together to form a large energy storage power system. The third is charge and discharge management.

The current "Peak Fill" project is based on my country Tower as an example. It is about 8800kWh, the reserve power supply, etc. of the iron tower, and the peak-filled Valley station is about 8800kWh (currently short service life, low energy density, " With low prices, with environmental protection, efficiency and other requirements, the replacement of lead-acid battery will be a power-based demand gap.

At present, the ladder utilization technology mainly based on PACK (battery pack, ie, multi-stage parallel battery constitutes + BMS (battery management system) is a more mainstream selection. The PACK process is divided into three parts: producing, assembled, and packaged. Its core is to connect multiple single cells through the mechanical structure and together to form a battery pack.

During the detailed operation, due to the problem of mechanical strength, system matching of the entire battery pack, it is necessary to involve heat management, current control and testing, module assembly design, and computer virtual development, etc., is a ladder utilization process. High threshold.

The important function of the BMS battery management system is intelligent management and maintenance of each battery unit, and the alert battery has overcharge and over-discharge, and monitors the battery in real time, thereby serving the use of battery life. BMS is a collection of management systems, control, display, communication, and information acquisition modules. It has played a link to connect the whole vehicle, battery and the entire battery system.

For battery manufacturers, BMS reflects the core technical competitiveness of manufacturers, and The BMS determines the scope of use, life and overall value of the reuse of the battery. The narrow ladder is only referred to as a restructuring of the battery, and the ladder of the current phosphate ion battery has been formed, and the connotation has become a full cycle, multi-level utilization of the available resource-deployed: when the vehicle enters After the scrap period (the service life of the general car is longer than the battery), it will experience: (1) High-performance battery screening: car companies, car dismantling plants and part recycling companies will relatively consistency in the scrap battery, relatively good performance The battery is filtered out by testing, group or entrusting other companies to give a battery pack, and then selling the ladder using the company with my country Tower. (2) Disassembly: Poor status, there is no battery that uses value, and most of them will return to third-party recycling companies, and the recycling company uses physical law or wet method to disassemble and reuse, copper, aluminum, Raw materials such as diaphragm extract parallel sales, positive material powder of lithium iron phosphate ion battery, negative material powder will enter the repair phase.

(3) Repair: The purpose of repair is to further purify the material powder of lithium iron phosphate to achieve higher price. At the same time, the battery retired after the ladder will also receive a process of disassembly / repair, and realize the multi-dimensional layer. In the entire circulation process, the general recycling company has three profit points, ie (1) selling initial screening status, can be used by the stranded battery; (2) selling the raw materials after the dismantling of the dismantling; (3) selling repaired / Negative material.

However, the current ladder uses two aspects of technology and commercialization. From a technical point of view, due to poor power lithium ion battery consistency, the life is different, the data of the BMS system will be departed from the actual situation of the battery, so that the challenge of safe, product quality, etc. From a commercial point of view, on the one hand, the product has been relatively low, on the other hand, because the battery model is different, the number of batteries to be in the group will be large, then screening, grouping, and production costs still Relatively high, only a few technical mature companies can access economic benefits.

Despite this, there are already a strategic cooperation agreement with a number of industry faucets and my country Tower and other downstream use companies. With the continuous introduction of the various standards of dynamic lithium-ion batteries, the consistency of the battery will increase significantly. The close relationship will make the use of the ladder in the future.

From economic aspects, by measuring the ladder of lithium iron phosphate ion batteries. Suppose the use of PACK + BMS technology is used to use, the cost of the PACK is about 0.3 yuan / WH, the BMS cost is 0.

1 yuan / WH, the recovery cost of the waste phosphate ion battery recovery cost is 0.05 yuan / WH, lithium iron phosphate ion battery ladder utilization cost Total is about 0.45 yuan / WH, the retardation of the tradder is 0.

6 yuan / WH. It is assumed that the energy density of the lithium iron phosphate ion battery is 110Wh / kg, and the energy attenuation of the recovered battery is reduced to 70%, and the returned space of the ladder is expected to exceed 5 billion yuan in 2023. Whether it is a cascade utilization or dismantling, we can see a new blue sea.

In the future, it will gradually open, people who seize this opportunity, there will be a lot of gains.

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