Author ：Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier
Power Lithium Ion Battery - One of the most important components of new energy vehicles, also carrying huge controversies. The pre-pollutant Totem is written in the previous article. To measure whether the new energy car is environmentally friendly than the fuel car, it is necessary to calculate a full life cycle of a new energy vehicle, that is, "material life cycle", including the collection, transportation, processing of car raw materials.
, Manufacturing and recycling (such as dynamic lithium-ion battery raw materials mining and production recovery). (Portal) There are many research institutions, which cause huge pollution during the production process of dynamic lithium-ion batteries, so it is likely that the emissions of new energy vehicles are much larger than traditional fuel vehicles. Taking a lithium-ion battery as an example, according to its basic composition and processing flow, its contamination is important for three major sources: 1.
Negative electrode: material is usually graphite, lithium titanate, silicon group, tin material. Among them, graphite is divided into natural graphite and artificial graphite. Natural graphite is derived from graphite mines.
There is more serious pollution during its mining; artificial graphite is made of high-temperature graphitization with high molecular weight such as petroleum or asphalt, basically non-polluting, but some lithium ion batteries in graphite flotation Recycling method, there may be some degree of pollution. 2. Positive: The current positive electrode material is lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganate, three-dimensional material, lithium cobaltate, lithium nickellate acid.
Lithium iron phosphate and lithium manganese acid have no heavy metals, not as contaminated by lead-acid batteries, but also light pollution. Trimed materials: lithium nickel-chanlate, wide use, electric bicycle, electronic product, model, etc., of which cobalt elements are poisonous.
3. Electrolytic solution: consist of an organic solvent and a lithium salt, a slight degree of contamination of dimethyl carbonate in an organic solvent. The lithium salt contains lithium hexafluorophosphate, and the water will hydrolyze hydrogen fluoride, toxic.
In addition, white pollution occurs in the casing material, diaphragm, and binder in a lithium ion battery, and the processing process also has a certain degree of environmental pollution, such as NMP (N-methylpyrrolidone) in the presence of toxicity. Recycling, with the development of the new energy car industry, the "material life cycle" is another part - the power lithium-ion battery is recymed, it is more urgent. Unfortunately, my country's battery recycling industry is still immature.
Moreover, the mature and perfect recycling system needs to be based on the company's profits. If the company cannot achieve economic benefits, the recycling work is huge, then whether policy subsidies are still difficult to sustainable. At present, the two important directions of the recycling of dynamic lithium-ion batteries are horizontal utilization and dismantling recovery.
The step is used to refer to the power lithium ion battery retired from the electric vehicle. When the battery is in good condition, it can be used as a vector stored in the relevant fields of power station energy storage, grid energy storage, etc. to exert the remaining value.
Similar to "After the toy car is used, the radio can also be used". Typical examples include Northern Automobile New Energy, Changan and other 11 car companies have cooperated with my country Tower, and the retired dynamic lithium-ion battery is used in the energy storage equipment of the communication base station. Of course, BYD also has deep layout.
However, the ladder is also facing some technical issues, such as discrete integration technology and life testing technology. Due to the difference in the difference in the difference in the battery produced by different manufacturers, there is a lack of unified standards, often encounter compatibility issues when dismantling and re-combining. Overall, the investment cost of the ladder is still higher than the cost of purchasing new batteries.
Although the advantages of digestive retirement batteries are obvious, they do not have the price ratio under current conditions. Demolition recovery is to completely decompose the battery and resource recycling. After discharging and disassembling of the power lithium ion battery, the recovery of valuable elements such as the raw materials (especially for cobalt, nickel, manganese, lithium), and realizes the recycling of battery materials, which looks relatively "advantageous map".
But actually recovery, this way's economic benefits have not imagined high. There is a research report, and the current recovery cost of 1 ton of lithium iron phosphate ion battery is around 8,500 yuan, and after purification of the metal through a series of processes, the resulting market value is only about 9,000 yuan, basically no profit can be said. And the three yuan lithium battery, because there is metal such as cobalt, nickel, manganese, the efficiency of recovery is higher than the lithium phosphate, but because of the toxicity of cobalt, improper operation is easy to cause secondary pollution or even explosion, so the equipment of the recycling company There are also higher requirements, which also changed the recovery cost and reduced economic benefits.
At present, the company is more than SMEs, it is difficult to form a scale effect, still profitable. The next type, the global acceleration layout despite the difficulties in the technical level, it is difficult to break through, but the industry maintains an optimism on the power lithium-ion battery recycling market. International market research institutions AlliedMarketresearch announced that electric motor vehicle battery recycling market research report said that by 2025, the number of electric vehicle battery recovery markets will reach 2.
27 billion US dollars, and during the period, the annual complex increase rate reaches 41.8%. The starting point research is more radical, and it is expected that my country's 2021 movement lithium battery recovery market will reach 10.
5 billion yuan. "The market size of the future dynamic lithium-ion battery will be very huge, we are more willing to recycle and build their own recycling capacity and system. "Mass Group Technical Planning Director Thomas Tiya.
Volkswagen Group said that it plans to start the battery recovery project in its German Salzgite, since 2020, the plant will recover about 1200 tons of waste car lithium-ion batteries each year. Obviously, the recycling of waste batteries also helps to reduce the dependence of the Mass Group on raw materials. According to the Popular Group's estimated, the current recovery rate of the raw materials in the battery pack is 53%, and the above pilot project can be upgraded to 72%.
Volkswagen Group believes that within 10 years, the group can raise the recycling rate of battery pack raw materials to 97%. In fact, car manufacturers, battery manufacturers, etc. have a unshirkable responsibility in battery recovery.
Toyota, BYD, Nissan, Daimler, BMW, Volkswagen, Renault, general-purpose car companies have begun to explore dynamic lithium-ion batteries and materials recycling. EU, my country, Japan, the United States and other countries and regions have made top design and planning from the policy level. Taking my country as an example, the 2018 Working Department jointly issued a series of policies such as "New Energy Automobile Power Battery Recycling Management Interim Measures", "New Energy Automobile Power Battery Recycling Research] announced this year's February 22 Report, indicating that the power lithium-ion battery recovery is about to enter the standardized management stage.
However, many experts pointed out that the current powerful lithium-ion battery recycling market chaos, small black workshop active. On the one hand, the government should encourage normative companies to enter, reduce the "threshold" of the industry; on the other hand, due to the current power lithium-ion battery recovery mode is not clear, the company is difficult to profit, it is recommended that the government strengthens the company while regulating the company.
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