How should the energy storage battery choose?

2022/04/08

  Author :Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier

The choice of battery energy storage routes is rich, including: lead-acid (lead carbon battery), lithium-ion battery (three yuan, lithium iron phosphate), super capacitor, nani battery, liquid flow battery, sodium sulfur battery, etc. How to choose in a dazzling battery technology? What is the principle design method and long-term planning? The prior to this issue interviewed by senior people including multi-sports experts. The solution they give is that the energy storage battery must adhere to the principle of safety first, and the technical route must be combined with the scene, the next generation battery may be more subversion, it is worthwhile.

Safety First experts said that the energy storage is a emerging industry, it is not to stand first, in order to talk, run forward. In the premise of safety, it will bring you endless injury to the industry. In mid-June, the South Korean Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced the results of the fire accident survey before 23, which concluded several originals: battery system deficiencies, the protection system of insulation test is insufficient, and the storage power station construction is not managed and maintained.

Comprehensive management system between converter (PCS) and energy storage system (ESS) is not good. The energy storage battery system is not satisfied with the four needs: energy transfer, peak frequency modulation, smooth discharge, track dispatch curve, etc. How to enhance the norm and do not hinder development is a problem that we want to discuss together in the whole industry.

The academician of our engineering institute Gu Gui said that compared with physical energy storage, the current electrochemical storage capacity is that the large-capacity battery system is prone to safety issues, even if the best battery is the best battery, if you work, Balance, will trigger safety accidents. Decomposition believes that the original battery is from two aspects: one side due to unreasonable or malfunction of electrical line, inverter, battery management system, etc., the fault part bureau is hot, the arc or electric spark instant is exothermic, which will result The line short circuit leads to electrical fire; on the other hand, as the number of battery cycles increases, the inclination of overflow, irreversible side reactions caused by the capacity attenuation, increased internal resistance, short circuit, abnormal gas production, and lithium lithium Or the overall temperature rises, when the heat is accumulated in the interior, it will cause thermal failure of the battery system.

Yang Yusheng, academician Yang Yusheng, said that the high-energy battery such as high nickel-three yuan should not be the focus of development, and there is an uncertainty in the success of all solid state batteries. At present, the lithium iron phosphate ion battery is high, the life is long, neither nickel does not use metal, etc.—Carbon cladding technology can be the main force, but it is necessary to improve our cost performance.

In the view of the chief expert of my country Electric Academy, theoretically, lithium iron phosphate is not absolute safety, just relatively safe. The safety accident of the energy storage power station that is currently seen is often happening in the absence of warning or lag. Therefore, in addition to enhancing battery management, energy storage security issues should also take into account some passive safety measures, such as sensors, fire protection systems, and even in advance in the operation and maintenance level, just like photovoltaic power stations, energy storage systems must be kept in mind Depending on the design, three points, the principle of operation and maintenance, can protect the system security controllable.

There are also industry insiders that the energy storage system security of special use scenarios should be introduced, such as the industrial and commercial user side energy storage system installed in the basement in the city, it is not necessary to attach great importance to security issues, cautious evaluation. According to reports, the Australian StandardsAustraliaAs5139 standard has requested lithium-ion batteries to be installed in a separate space / housing, and the household battery energy storage system can only be installed outdoors a special area. President of the implementation of the Ministry of Industry Co.

, Ltd., the implementation of the Ministry of Energy, the implementation of the Ministry of Industry, believes that the energy storage is far from the advanced, economic, and now we must steady and stabilize, the safety balance of the entire energy storage system, from electricity Core, battery to BMS (battery management system), until the EMS (Energy Management System) is made. How is the scene custom battery technology route? As cost decline, can battery energy can replace pumping energy? These are also the problem of industry concerns.

In the eyes of Gu Gui, it is impossible to say which storage method is best, whether it is a physical properties of pumping energy storage, flywheel energy storage, or various batteries of electrochemical, and their various types of use, scientific approach should It is based on its characteristics, deploying in a suitable place, better playing its functions. When my country Electronics Construction Group East Survey and Design Institute Co., Ltd.

, Thunder believes that both battery energy storage and pumping storage are not a phase of life, not your relationship, can develop into mutual supplements, common development, and mutual encouragement. The reason is that the battery energy can track the fluctuation of the grid frequency and the load in a very short time (100 milliseconds), the power climb rate is extremely fast, and the electrical energy and frequency are almost completely synchronized, but the persistence is limited. The amount of pumping capacity is not enough for 10 seconds, but can supply from the day adjustment to the circumference, more reliable guarantee for the large stability of the system and accidental supply, which is not available for the supply of grids in the subsequent renewal.

Replace. From the scene, the current important scenes of battery storage include: power-side-side scenery power station, thermal power plant AGC frequency modulation; substation energy storage, virtual power plant, peak, auxiliary service (FM, pressure, and black start) , Rotating alternate); light storage power station, home energy storage, spare power supply, etc. According to expert analysis, from the battery type, the most important thing is the power characteristics and capacity characteristics of the battery.

Therefore, according to different requirements of different energy storage, the battery power capacity ratio is used, and the energy storage battery is generally divided into three types: capacity type (≤0.5c), energy type≈1C) and power type≥2C). The greater the ratio, the higher the power density of the battery, but the capacity density will be lower, and the price of unit capacity will be higher.

In the current various types of energy storage batteries, liquid flow batteries and lithium slurry batteries belong to a typical capacity battery, and the titanate ion battery in the lithium ion battery and the supercapacitor are a typical power type battery. Other types of batteries can make some degree of attribute adjustment by changing battery materials and processes to accommodate different energy storage. The energy storage battery has no high demand for energy density.

For different use scenarios, it will have a certain requirement for its power density, such as safety, long life, high energy conversion efficiency, and the number of cycles is generally greater than 3,500 times. In integrated, power peak, peak price differential in the network type photovoltaic energy storage or user side, generally stored in battery continuous charging or continuous discharge for more than two hours, so suitable charge and discharge ratio≤0.5C capacity battery; with respect to the energy-saving scenario of power frequency frequency, smooth renewable energy fluctuations, it is necessary to make a battery quick charge and discharge in the second stage to minute levels, so compare the charge and discharge rate.

≥2C power battery; and in some simultaneous use scenarios, the energy-type battery will be more suitable, of course, this scenario can also be used with a capacity battery. The disruptive innovation of the subverting industry must have a new generation of technology support. Just because of a new generation of memory chips that break through the mechanical addressing method, Jobs launched an Apple mobile phone.

The same is based on material innovation, and the Moore's law in the chip industry cannot take effect in the energy storage industry. It is also difficult for the public to file interest, and it is more and more smart, more intelligent. The battery is still looking for the arrival of the upgrade in the hardships.

In the face of a variety of energy storage technology routes, many experts said that although there are currently many battery technology routes, existing technology will not be future mainstream routes, and will have subversive technology in the future. Since 2018, many battery experts have disclosed that the future power lithium battery and energy storage battery technology route will be separated, and the energy storage dedicated battery will also appear. Chen Yongxi, the head of the energy storage technology research team of my country Institute of Electrical Research Institute, my country's Chemistry and Physical Power Industry Association, said Chen Yongxi, said that the existing storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries is progressively developed by micro-cell batteries such as mobile phone batteries.

In addition, in addition to the battery volume, there is no core design idea to coating the film electrode structure from the small battery, which gives a challenge for the consistency design of a lithium-ion battery for large energy storage. In addition, there is a safety hazard based on the use of the existing principles, and the post-resolution is more difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to completely leave the design idea of ​​the original small battery, develop subversive large energy storage battery structure technology, including ultra-high pressure structural techniques for ultra-thick slurry electrode technology and power energy storage for capacity storage energy, On this basis, innovation has developed low-cost manufacturing technology, safe and longevity repair technology and green environmental recycling technology to meet the needs of different energy storage and use scenarios, and support the development of energy storage industry.

It is understood that the slurry battery developed by Japan Jing Porcelain company can reduce the cost of the raw material than the previous reduction of about 30%, and will start mass production within 2020, and used in residential and factory energy storage systems. Chen Yongzhen expects that the next decade, electrochemical energy storage technology will have subversive development. Regarding the energy storage company, the following categories are worth paying attention: technology reliability, energy storage products or processing equipment export suppliers with international vision; technology routes are unique, and there is a clear competitive energy supply product supplier; master Core use technology, with insurance companies to supply energy storage and transportation service providers for energy storage rental services; energy storage system companies under the grid company.

In the future, the goal of electrochemical energy storage technology is low cost, long life, high security, easy recycling, and has to be subversive innovation and breakthrough.

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