Dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling channel and business model analysis


  Author :Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier

Currently in small workshop recycling channels, it will be willing to standardize the life cycle of standardized dynamic lithium-ion batteries, including production, use, scrap, decomposition and reuse. Dynamic lithium-ion batteries have changed in addition to chemical activity after their scrap, the chemical composition of the battery does not change, but its charge and discharge performance can not meet the power requirements of the vehicle, but can be applied to a lower requirement than car electrical energy requirements. The ladder of the dynamic lithium-ion battery is therefore also become one of the current industries to explore more recycled methods, so that the battery is used in the automobile after eliminating the energy storage base station and the street lamp, the low-speed electric car, and finally Enter the recycling system, but this business model also faces whether to make profitable considerations, involving channels and technology issues.

As mentioned above, the recovery utilization of the power lithium ion battery can be divided into two cyclic processes: (1) Ladder use: Important to battery capacity reduction makes the battery to make electric cars operating normally, but the battery is not scrapped, still in other Ways continue to use, for example for electric energy storage; (2) dismantling recovery: important for battery capacity loss, so that the battery cannot continue to use, only the battery is resourcefully processed, recovering the regeneration resources of utilization value. The recycling channel of the power lithium-ion battery is currently important to recycle small workshops, and the professional recycling company and the government recycling center are few, the system needs to be reorganized. At present, there are currently in my country's dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling market to flow into the lack of qualifications refurbished small workshops.

These corporate process equipment is behind, but if they are submitted to register the tax payable according to law, obtain qualifications and emissions according to national standards. It will result in the lack of competitiveness, so how to further improve the policy to ensure the sustainable development of the battery recovery industry is very necessary. Recycling small workshop: low recovery cost, can raise recycling prices, high-priced recycling is their biggest competitive advantage.

However, after the recovery, these small workshops are only simply repaired by the waste dynamic lithium-ion batteries and reinstall it back to the market, disturb the normal order of the dynamic lithium-ion battery market. In addition, due to these small workshops do not have relevant qualifications, it is prone to safety hazards and environmental issues. Professional Recycling Company: Professional Recycling Company is a professional company approved specialized recycling for useful powered lithium-ion batteries, comprehensive strength, advanced technology equipment, process specification, can maximize recycling resources, but also reduce the environmental impact.

At present, the recycling company of my country's special powerful lithium-ion battery includes Shenzhen Greenmei, Bangpu Circular Technology, Chaowei Group and Avantheal Environmental Protection. At present, although there are more and more companies in the layout of lithium-ion battery recovery, but lack of support and policy incentives for government systems. Government Recycling Center: Local governments in accordance with national relevant laws, the national recycling center, which is conducive to the scientific normally managed battery recycling market, improve the recycling network, reasonable layout and recycle network and recycling market, and improve the recovery of regular channels.

At present, there is still no powers of the government recycling center of lithium-ion batteries, but the future can be developed according to the real situation in my country. Developed country battery recycling industry is mainly market regulation, the government is constrained as auntie: government legislation recycling, producers undertake important responsibility, set up funds to improve the market construction of recycling system. EU Waste Frame Directive (2008/98 / EC) and Battery Recycling Directive (2006/66 / EC) is the legislative basis for German battery recycling regulations.

Recycling regulations requires producers, sellers, recyculations and consumers on the battery industry, such as battery manufacturers must register in government, undertake important recycling responsibilities, vendors to cooperate with battery manufacturers. Battery recycling work, while end consumers want to return used batteries to the designated recycling network. In addition, Germany has established a waste battery recycling system with the fund and deposit mechanism, which has achieved good results, which is responsible for operation of the Battery Manufacturer and Electronic Electric Manufacturer Association, which is the largest lithium-ion battery recycling in Europe.

Organization, the organization began recycling industrial batteries from 2010. The future will also incorporate electric vehicle power lithium-ion batteries into the system recovery, actively carry out the recycling of dynamic lithium-ion batteries. 2015, Bosch Group, BMW and Vartenford The company uses the powerful lithium-ion battery to use the development cooperation project, the project uses BMW Activee and I3 pure electric car retired battery build 2MW / 2MWH large photovoltaic power station energy storage system.

The energy storage system is responsible for operation and maintenance by Vantenfoy, and the project will be built in Berlin, Germany. It is expected to be put into use at the end of 2015. Japan: Production mode is gradually transformed into "loop reuse" mode, company as a pioneer involved in battery recycling.

In 1994, Japan's battery manufacturers began to recycle battery programs. On the basis of each participant voluntarily, using retailers, car dealers or gas stations to recycle waste batteries to consumers, recycle route and sales Route opposite. Since 2000, the government stipulates that the manufacturer shall be responsible for the recovery of nickel-hydrogen and lithium-ion batteries, and based on resource recycling for product design; battery recycling back to battery production company processing, the government gives production companies corresponding subsidies, improve company recycling Enthusiasm.

In addition, many companies in Japan also participate in battery recycling activities. Nissan Company has established 4Renergy and Sumitomo Commercial Corporation, which is committed to the recycling of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles; Honda is studying the technology that can recover precious metals in the battery, and cooperate with other metal manufacturers to promote the recycling of resources; Sanyo Company Studies have developed the circuit of the recycling battery, actively carry out recycling of recovery batteries. Japan's important communication company is also jointly established to establish a self-recovery of lithium-ion batteries, stratetted that its responsibility to promote recycling of lithium-ion batteries, and strive to significantly improve the recovery rate of lithium-ion batteries.

US: Market adjustment is mainly, the government is responsible for constrained by environmental protection standards, assisting the recycling of waste power lithium-ion batteries. The US-commercial recovery company (RBRC) and the US Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) have been established in the US market. environment.

RBRC is a non-profit public service organization, which is important to promote recycling of rechargeable batteries such as nickel-chromium batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and small sealed lead batteries. PRBA is a non-profitable battery association consisting of related battery companies. Its important goal is to formulate recycling plans and measures to promote the circular utilization of industrial batteries.

RBRC supplies three methods to collect, transport and reuse waste-free batteries. Including (1) retail recovery method; (2) Community recovery method; (3) Company company and public sector recycling method. Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PBRC) Important involves three aspects: (1) US DOT related regulations on lithium-ion batteries, lithium metal batteries and related regulations on transportation; (2) CPSC related laptop battery, mobile phone battery Recall; (3) Important laws and regulations.

In the academic community, the Hybrid Electric Automobile Research Center of Davis Branch of California also conducted research on secondary use and value analysis of dynamic lithium-ion batteries in 2010. The research content includes 4 to 5 cells secondary utilization Specific requirements for battery performance, product development for home energy storage systems (HESA), and evaluation of battery overall value (the sum of the value of electric vehicles and secondary use). my country clearly adopts the production of the responsibility extension system.

With the continuous improvement of the policy, the industry is gradually going to standardize my country's status quo: the development of dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery technology is relatively mature, but management is relatively backward, hinders the development of the power lithium-ion battery recycling industry. Important performance is: (1) Recycling network is not perfect. The recycling network is important from the small and medium-sized recycling company, it is difficult to obtain effective recovery; (2) Recycling company is small, the process level is not perfect, it is difficult to ensure resource recovery efficiency; (3) There is no business licensed company illegally engaged in waste power Battery recycling, with safety and environmental hidden dangers.

As new energy vehicles continue to rise, the recycling problem of electric vehicle power lithium-ion batteries will be more and more prominent, and the national and local governments have issued policies to accelerate the construction of benign industrial ecosystems. In July 2012, "Energy Saving and New Energy Automobile Industry Development Plan" clearly proposes to "develop dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling management method, establish dynamic lithium-ion battery step utilization and recycling management system, guide dynamic lithium-ion battery production company to strengthen Recycling and utilization of waste batteries, encouraging development of specialized battery recycling. In July 2014, the "General Office of the State Council on accelerating the promotion of new energy vehicles" proposes to study the development of dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling policies, explore the use of funds, deposits, mandatory recycling, etc.

to promote the recycling of waste power lithium-ion batteries, Establish and improve the recycling system of waste dynamic lithium-ion battery. In March 2015, the "Conditional Conditions for Automobile Power Battery Industry" stipulates that the system company should study the use of automotive vehicle companies to study the method of recycling and reuse of operable waste power storage batteries. In January 2016, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Commerce, the Quality Supervision Bureau of 5 ministries, the Quality Supervision, the electric vehicle power storage battery recycling technology policy (2015 edition) "clearly established a dynamic lithium-ion battery coding system to establish a traceability system.

Clearly adopted the production person's responsibility extension system, the electric vehicle production company undertakes an important responsibility for the recycling and utilization of electric vehicles, and the power storage battery production company undertakes an important responsibility of the recycling and utilization of the electric vehicle production company after-sales service system. Battery production company undertakes important responsibilities of rails using battery recycling, and scrapped car recycling dismantling companies should be responsible for recycling powerful batteries on scrap vehicles. In incentive measures, the state will support the technical research and development, equipment imports of the company and regeneration in the existing funding channels.

In terms of technology research and development, the research and development of national support for power storage-related recycling technology and equipment. In February 2016, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the "Normative Conditions for New Energy Automobile Waste Battery Battery Comprehensive Utilization" and the Interim Measures for the Administration of New Energy Automobile Waste Power Battery Comprehensive Utilization Industry ", clarify the main body of waste battery recovery, strengthen industry management and recycling Supervision. In February 2016, "Waste Battery Polishing Prevention and Treatment Technology Policy" comment on opinion.

In the new policy, highlights related to lithium-ion batteries are important: 1) The scope covered by waste batteries is incorporated into emerging lithium-ion batteries, solar cells and fuel powered lithium batteries, and the attitude of the battery's resource regeneration factor changes from prudent. Advocacy and promotion; New technologies such as diaphragm, metal products, and electrode material regeneration processing equipment such as battery, etc. In addition to the state policy level, many local governments are also actively exploring the specific implementation of the recycling of the power lithium-ion battery: Shanghai: 2014 Shanghai announced "Shanghai Encourage purchase and use new energy vehicle Interim Measures" , Requires car companies to recover the power lithium-ion battery, the government gives 1000 yuan / set of rewards.

Car enterprise recycling dynamic lithium-ion battery government will subsidize 1000 yuan / set; Guangzhou: November 2014 "The General Office of Guangzhou Municipal People's Government on Printing and Distributing the Interim Measures of Guangzhou New Energy Automobile Promotion Application Management, this city is established The vehicle power lithium-ion battery recycling channel, recovery the power lithium ion battery according to the relevant requirements. Beijing: January 27, 2016, "The Future Development Trend Forum of Automobile Table" in Beijing is held in Beijing with the theme of "cooperative innovation and common development". Xu Xinchao, Director of the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, said in the forum: "3 non-policy" related to the new energy car proposed, no restrictions, non-pay taxes, Beijing has implemented; at the same time, Beijing Dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery can be effectively solved by "3 links".

(1) The vehicle enterprise is the first responsible subject for the recycling of dynamic lithium-ion batteries. (2) The retired power lithium-ion battery can also be used. (3) The technique of techniques enable the use of after the recovery of waste batteries to reach 99%, and the environment is harmless.

Shenzhen: In 2015, Shenzhen announced the "Shenzhen Municipal People's Government on issuing a number of policy measures issued by Xinchong Energy Automobile in Shenzhen", content display requirements, formulate dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling policies, and consolidate new energy vehicles Ion battery forced recovery, and by the whole vehicle manufacturing company, according to 20 yuan per kilowatt, the local fiscal is given no more than 50% subsidies in accordance with the audited account amount, establish and improve the waste. Dynamic lithium-ion battery circulation utilization system. In September 2016, the Shenzhen Municipal Development and Reform Commission jointly announced the notice of "Shenzhen 2016 New Energy Automobile Promotion Application Financial Support Policy".

In terms of dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery, "new regulations" require new energy automotive manufacturers to be responsible for recycling, and the company is subsidized by 50% of the amount determined by auditing by 50% of the audited amount. , Subsidy funds should be used for power lithium-ion battery recycling. Commercial model comparison: Constructing the production person recycling system under the economic incentive can see the relevant experience of battery recycling from Europe and the United States.

When establishing a recycling system of used waste batteries, the power lithium-ion battery manufacturer undertakes the important responsibility of battery recycling. When the power lithium-ion battery supports electric vehicles, consumers such as operators, group customers or individual customers, consumers have the ownership of the powered lithium-ion battery, and also have the powerful rendering of the power lithium-ion battery. The recycling network in this mode is rebuilt by the power-lithium-ion battery manufacturer's sales service network of electric vehicle manufacturers, and the electric vehicle producer has a responsibility to cooperate with the power lithium-ion battery used in its products.

The manufacturer has the most controlled power in the product full life cycle, accounting for a variety of resources, and is responsible for the design architecture of the product. It can be said that the manufacturer has mastered all the information of the product, which determines the level of the product on the environment. The recycling process is a sales network of electric vehicle manufacturers using electric vehicle manufacturers to recycle used batteries in reverse logistics.

Consumers pay the scrapped battery back to the nearby electric vehicle sales service outlets, according to the cooperation agreement of battery manufacturers and electric vehicles, electric vehicles producers to the battery production company, and specialized recycling Battery manufacturers can continue to utilize recycled metal materials. In addition, when the scrapped car dismantling company is recycling the abandoned electric car, it is also necessary to directly sell the disassembled power lithium-ion battery to power lithium-ion battery manufacturer. In the form of recycling, the system that implements "old-replaced" has prompted more consumers to return the waste battery to ensure the recovery of the power lithium-ion battery.

When consumers replace new batteries, old batteries can deduct part of the new battery. When the scrapped car dismantling company recovers electric vehicles with power lithium-ion batteries, consumers should give consumers' cash compensation, then sell waste-powered lithium-ion batteries to power lithium-ion battery manufacturers. Industry Alliance Recycling Dynamic Lithium Ion Battery Model refers to the power lithium-ion battery manufacturer, electric vehicle manufacturer or battery rental company in the industry, and jointly funds specialized recycling organizations, responsible for the recycling of dynamic lithium-ion batteries.

This approach prevents the number of recycling batteries due to the limited number of recycling batteries caused by the single company strength of the battery manufacturer, less funds, limited recycling channels. The important feature of this mode is to establish uniform recycling organizations in the industry, strong influence, extensive coverage, operate independent; and recycled networks, easy to return batteries. Recycling benefits for recycling network construction and operation.

Third-party recycling mode: to build a recycling network and related logistics system alone, responsible for recycling the waste dynamic lithium-ion batteries produced by the company after-sales market, then transporting back to the recovery center, conducting specialized recovery treatment. After the electric car finally scrapped into the car dismantling company, the car dismantling company can sell the waste power lithium-ion battery to the third party company. The establishment of the recycling mode is to invest a large amount of funding for recycling equipment, recycling network and human resources construction; cost is also one of the important factors.

Under the system of producers' responsibility extension, different power lithium ion battery recovery modes apply to different types of companies. About large-scale dynamic lithium-ion battery manufacturers, there are many types of products, large production and sales, strong technology, economic strength they recycle batteries; related small and medium-sized companies, product types, production and sales, have a large number of recycling Investment, will affect the development of the company's core business, so you can choose to recycle with other organizations. In contrast, the industry alliance recycals cost economy is the best, but because of the cooperation between companies in the industry, there is currently not very perfect in laws and regulations, and operability is small.

In terms of comprehensive cost, the model cost of direct recycling of dynamic lithium-ion battery manufacturers is low, and third-party recovery model is high.

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