Dynamic lithium battery recycling

2022/04/08

  Author :Iflowpower – Portable Power Station Supplier

At the beginning of the New Year, the smog spread in the whole land of North China, like a hard-wrapped ghost, I will not be disappeared for a long time. "My International Automobile News" reporters sit in the high-speed train in the south, no more than 1,000 kilometers away from the blue sky. However, good, the reporter is going to hopes, coordinate Changsha, the destination is located in the local Hunan Bangpu Waste Car Circulation Co.

, Ltd. (later referred to as "Bangp"). In the beginning of January, the General Office of the State Council issued the "Producer Responsibility Extension System", which proposed the requirements of the establishment of electric vehicle power lithium-ion battery recycling system in the new energy vehicle area, ensuring the standard recycling and safety disposal of waste batteries.

This is the dawn of the powerful lithium-ion battery recovery including Bangu. As a national high-tech company, the domestic high-end battery material production is produced, the company's dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling is currently designed with 30,000 tons / year. However, even the leader of this industry, Bangpu in the field of electric vehicle power lithium-ion battery recovers, still can't escape the dilemma of years of loss.

According to the survey of the "my country Automobile News" reporter, Bangu's case is actually a minority of the development of the dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling industry. Although it is full of hope, it is still very weak, just like a tender bud that has just been broken, it is inseparable from care and cultivation. Even in the practice of the industry, at this stage, the powerful lithium-ion battery recovery is probably a "pseudo-answer".

What is this? And listen to the reporter slowly. It is a very good business. "You can pay attention to this problem very well.

"" Reporting this thing is very meaningful. "In the interview with the" my country Automobile News "reporter, many industry experts expressed their affirmation and recognition of the direction of the recycling of the power lithium-ion battery. This is in a high sense, thanks to the jealousy of the cause, or use a fashionable word to describe "tall".

First of all, environmental protection. According to data, the waste-driven lithium-ion battery is not properly, effective disposal, will threaten environment and human health, affect society sustainable development. At present, the power lithium-ion battery is mainly based on lithium ions and lead acid batteries.

Cadmium in the lead-acid battery, the lead itself is heavy metal, some recycling stations disassemble the battery, poured down the acid solution contaminated with the environment, disassemble the pole to recycle lead, and then sell some small smelters or small workshops with high prices. No professional treatment. Environmental promotion occasions can be seen in almost everywhere: "A small button battery can pollute 600 cubic meters of water, equivalent to a person's drinking water.

"If it is a powerful lithium-ion battery that weighs 200 kilograms? Improper disposal, and consequences can be imagined. Lithium-ion batteries are referred to as "green batteries" because they do not contain mercury, cadmium, lead and other heterogeneous heavy metal elements, but this does not represent it is absolutely non-polluting. The positive material of the power lithium-ion battery, there is a possibility of heavy metal contamination, and the electrolyte also has strong corrosive and poisonous toxicity, which is prone to poisoned chemical gas, endangering human health.

Yang Yusheng, academicians of our engineering, said: "All batteries are chemicals, in waste battery processing, if the system is not strict, the management is not good, the management is not polluted, and the environment may pollute the environment. "The economic value of the driving lithium-ion battery recovery is not small. The resource forced recycling industry technological innovation strategic alliance in November 8, the fourth-year-old and lithium-ion battery recycling seminar, the deputy principal of Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Tsinghua University professor Xu Shengming said that the power The lithium-ion battery recycling market is huge, and the value is reflected in the rare metal content of cobalt and nickel.

For example, according to the statistics of the "my country Automobile News" reporter, cobalt is one of the 9 mineral resources of my country's serious shortage. The domestic cobalt mine contains only 0.02%, and the currently exploded amount is only 4.

Ten thousand tons; 60% ~ 70% is used for battery production, resources are seriously dependent on import, proportion, even more than 95%. It is obviously an important way to effectively recover cobalt from waste batteries. Yu Navy, General Manager of Bond Company, said the "my country Automobile News" reporter said that the resource efficiency that the waste dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling can have a direct mining of similar resources in nature.

"Bond's products are currently in short supply, don't worry. He said. It is reported that Bangpu expands the area of ​​the entire plant in 2016, further enhances the production of power lithium-ion batteries to remove the water line.

This is not the only one of the universal use of the lithium-ion battery. Experts say that different electricity quality, different frequency wind energy, photovoltaic power generation, etc. The energy storage system is subject to high technical costs that cannot be used on a large scale.

If the retired electric car battery is used as an energy storage system, it can not only meet the demand, but also the cost of only 1/3 of the same type of new battery. "The battery that is removed in the toy is put in the remote control." Is the popular understanding of the dynamic lithium-ion battery for performance.

Li Director, director of the Intelligent Power Network Research Office, the National Power Grid Energy Research Institute, pointed out that in addition to environmental protection and resource consolidation, the automotive industry has also formed a driving force. "Subsidy is a general trend, the company will solve two pain points in the future, one is to improve the electric used car residual value, and how can I drop the cost of the user?. Therefore, the power lithium-ion battery recovery is definitely to put on their agenda.

"The bad business and the good business in the sprout is in fact. A senior engineer of the Technology Development Department of a new energy automobile production company said to the "my country Automobile News" reporter: "The core of this matter must be able to guarantee profits, it is difficult to continue without making money. Recycling and then uses you want 'back to benefit (Run)'.

"This point of view has been recognized by all people who have been visited. The powerful lithium-ion battery recycling is a system of feelings of every social people who know the people of insight. Business.

However, a part of "money" is a good "business", it is not normal business behavior, even allegedly. According to the "my country Automobile News" reporter, domestic regulations have strict regulations on battery recycling companies, to apply for licenses, can apply for useful battery recycling and processing. Due to technical and funding, there is not much qualified company.

On the contrary, many individuals and unsupported companies are not only technically lagging, but they don't care about environmental pollution, arbitrary discharge. They recycle batteries at a higher price, not only disrupted the market, but also buried great environmental and safety hazards. For example, "my country Motor News" reporter learned that some traders who played the ladder use the banner often purchase power lithium-ion batteries to the vehicle factory with high prices, and directly dismantled after recovery, and then sold for senile steps, catch Fish machine and even mobile phone charging treasure.

Zhao Jianhe, Zhao Jianhe, a senior engineer of Beijing Jingyi, Dedication Electrician Technology, revealed that in the period of the "defraud" period of the new energy vehicle, that is, reorganized the recycled power lithium ion battery, and loaded into the new car, which is to a certain extent. The retired battery is not active "Diversion". Li Yoko, deputy director of the Automobile Industry Policy Research Office, China, also said to the "my country Automobile News" reporter: "Can the car enterprise collect the battery through its after-sales channel, is an important issue facing by the industry because the battery is sold Post-property rights belong to users.

In a sense, it is difficult to collect it from the user. If the flow of the battery is the non-formal processing company, or if it is not properly handled, the risk is uncontrollable, so the recovery link should be in the system construction management. "If we return the above violations to" bad business ", how is the" good business "of the dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery and re-use? According to the data, 2015 domestic scrap dynamic lithium-ion battery accumulated 20,000 ~ 4 Ten thousand tons, the corresponding battery recovery is only 2%.

According to the forecast of my country's Automobile Technology Research Center, by 2020, my country's accumulated scrap dynamic lithium-ion batteries will reach 120,000 to 170,000 tons. Its recycling is obviously an attractive "cake". "A far-signed company will pay attention to this field, and the future market will be very large.

"Zhang Jianhui, Chairman and General Manager of Haibo Schola Science Co., Ltd., said in an interview with" my country Automobile News ".

The company focuses on electric vehicle battery management (BMS) and intelligent grid storage system R & D, engineering design and system integration, 2011 ~ 2012, participated in the Beijing Olympic service vehicle retired dynamic lithium-ion battery ladder to use the demonstration project, currently in the future Start the dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling and use basic work. Although the prospects are good, the reality is embarrassing. Li Yuko told the "my country Automobile News" reporter: "According to preliminary estimates, according to the new energy car, my country's existing retired dynamic lithium-ion battery should be in 10,000 tons, if there is no card with no brand and used for experimental testing The battery of the vehicle is only tens of thousands of tons.

Wu Hui, Director of the CCID Consulting Co., Ltd., said that the biggest problem in this industry is that there is no battery that can be recycled, and it is impossible to form scale efficiency.

"In 2014, the sales volume of electric cars only tens of thousands. In 2015, the sales volume started, and it could reach the peak of the powerful lithium-ion battery after at least 3 to 4 years. "He said.

Bangp's situation is that in 2016, 1600 tons of dynamic lithium-ion batteries are recovered, accounting for only 1/10 of the national scrap volume of the year. The recycling scale has not yet formed, and it is inevitable that economic benefits cannot be driven. As one of the first companies engaged in the recycling of dynamic lithium-ion batteries in China, the company faces this issue.

Yu Navy talked: "It is not to formulate policy regulations. The industry will work accordingly. The current important issue is not big enough.

"And the reporter learned from a person who is unwilling to name the name, a large number of waste dynamic lithium-ion batteries hoarded in the battery factory. "With technical and qualified companies are rare, automakers can't find the company to receive waste batteries. ".

In this context, cost is also a challenge that cannot be avoided. The senior engineer of the new energy car company told reporters that scrapped battery testing, dismantling, re-set, maintenance, etc. The price of pure raw materials is also high.

According to the information supplied by the 100-person electric car in my country, a company with mechanical law and wet recovery of waste phosphate ion batteries, recovery treatment 1 ton waste phosphate dynamic lithium-ion battery is 8540 yuan, while regeneration materials Only 8110 yuan, loss of 430 yuan. Since the lithium-ion battery recovery technology is more complicated, the recovery process cost is high, and the value of the three-yuan system is high, the lithium malamine is manganese acid, the phosphate is positive and the positive recovery value is low. Bangp is facing this test.

Yu Haijun introduced: "The mechanical dismantling cost of retired batteries is high; the chemical decomposition is difficult, high research and development costs. "Where does Whaizhuang high rise? The current situation of the industry development, the unison of people who have been interviewed is that most companies (especially the automotive industry) have just started layout. "Since a while, the attention of the vehicle enterprises has stayed in electric vehicle sales, focusing on ensuring product reliability, insufficient rear end utilization and optimization.

However, in these two years, they have begun to do this. "Li Li. Wang Guangyu, General Manager of Jianghuai Automobile Passenger Marketing Company, said: "The mileage of the first generation of Jianghuai electric vehicles has reached around 100,000 kilometers.

With the end of the product life cycle, we must solve the problem of battery recycling. Let's think and practice together. "Power lithium-ion battery recycling and then uses the industry to do.

Is intricate, what to start? "Do not establish a dynamic lithium-ion battery value assessment system, recycling is a 'Pseudo-Question. "Zhang Jianhui said," The system is closely related to the circulating life of the power lithium-ion battery, that is, how many times can it be charged and discharge. At present, we have no other convenient methods to test this, if there is a lack of history, it is difficult to estimate.

"In his opinion, if you don't understand how many times will recycle the retired battery, it is completely silly, the model itself does not promote the value of the application. It is said that the powerful lithium-ion battery recycling should be used to calculate economic accounts. It can only be discounted directly with a hundred and eighty-taking products.

If it is a thousand and eight hundred times. So, how does the retired battery determine the recovery price? How to judge the "money" scene? After peeling, the reporter found that the establishment of the value assessment system is probably the work of the powerful lithium-ion battery recovery. This issue has become a consensus of people of insight.

In November last year, in my country's electric vehicle 100-person dynamic lithium-ion battery material and material comprehensive utilization seminar, Wang Fang, chief expert and New Energy Department, director of my country's Automobile Technology Research Center, pointed out that the difficulty of steps of steps or The unfavorable factor is the lack of historical data. "We want to put the evaluation and monitoring process in the entire cycle of the battery, rather than eliminating it, then testing, screening. The monitoring and evaluation system gave a battery with a 'ID card, let it have' health care ', which is convenient to match the field of secondary use.

"She said at the meeting. According to the requirements of government departments, new energy vehicles have established a monitoring platform to detect and manage key systems such as dynamic lithium-ion batteries. However, its focus is currently guaranteed driving safety and prevention "defraud"; data acquisition frequency is too low, the density is too small enough to analyze the battery attenuation, the extraction data is limited, and it is not possible to effectively evaluate the retired battery.

"Establish an assessment system, just on the basis of the monitoring platform, but the business value is very large. We can't hold the 'Golden Food Bowl' to eat. "Zhang Jianhui said.

Upstream and downstream cooperation expectation, in fact, in order to standardize and guide the size of the dynamic lithium-ion battery, in order to develop, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has issued "electric vehicle power storage battery product specifications" (Draft for the purpose) and "driving power Lithium ion battery coding "(Draft for comments). Two documents are intended to promote the establishment of battery standardization and dynamic lithium-ion battery coding systems and traceability systems to improve the convenience of deported battery testing and dismantling. In November last year, the my country Automotive Technology Research Center took the lead, and the joint dynamic lithium-ion battery industry chain rushed together to initiate the establishment of "Electric Vehicle Power Battery Circulation Strategic Alliance".

According to relevant person in charge, the alliance will work in this year to work for recycling standards, and promote the establishment of a battery traceability information system, and the monitoring of the battery lifecycle. Start or complete the development of "Interim Measures for the Administration of New Energy Automobile Power Battery Recycling". Of course, there is still a lot of work that has been established in the establishment of a value assessment system.

There are still many work to do. Although the amount of scrap has not until the wellbore boundary, the development of policy standards should be prepared for large-scale scraps, and should not lag behind the development of the industry. In 2016, in terms of laws, policies and standards, my country has no special documents for the recycling of dynamic lithium-ion batteries, mostly in solid waste prevention, resource recovery, circular economy, hazardous waste management, new energy vehicles In policies, standards and planning, such documents are only principled regulations on the recycling of dynamic lithium-ion batteries, and the relevant provisions are more general, lack of specific operability.

The standardization of the dynamic lithium-ion battery module is a matter of car. "Car manufacturers should consider the standardization of battery modules, realize the interchangeability of different platforms, so that the dismantling mold can be reused. For example, Tesla Model3 and General Bolt use power lithium-ion batteries to expand the moderate design, so that the retired battery is easy to use.

"Zhang Jianhui said. Bangpu also appealed that domestic cars should formulate and publish power lithium-ion battery dismantlement manual as soon as possible. Some multinational car companies have been more advanced in this area, using green design concepts, considering recycling of reused convenience issues at the beginning of product design.

The world's mainstream dynamic lithium-ion battery company is only five, the standardization of dynamic lithium-ion battery is relatively easy, and my country's powered lithium-ion battery manufacturers are more than four or fifty, the size, interface, and size of the battery have not realized standardization. From the convenience of recycling, recycling equipment development, the higher the concentration of the entire industry, the easier to advance the standardization work of the power lithium-ion battery. Yu Haijun said: "This should be the choice of the market, not the result of mandatory results, the accumulation of the development of the industry.

".

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